Wayne's World of History and Genealogy

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Illinois Coal & Coal Mining
History & Genealogy

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1898
A Year Of Turmoil In Illinois Coal Mines
      The terror at Pana in Christain County and tragedy at Virden in Macoupin County
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Strikes and Related Events During 1898
as related in newspaper articles
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January
The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 65
Wednesday, January 5, 1898, Page 1
More Illinois Miners to Strike.
Springfield Ills., Jan. 5. -- The miners of Taylorville, to the number of 200, met Monday night and organized in a union and decided to demand the Springfield scale. If not granted by next Saturday they will strike.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 137
Wednesday, January 5, 1898, Page 2
Coal Miners Strike Settled.
Assumption, Ill., Jan. 5 -- The coal miners' strike here is settled, mine is running and all the men will go back.
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Bureau County Tribune, Princeton, Bureau County, Illinois
Volume 26, Number 24
Friday, January 7, 1898, Page 9
Assumption, Ill. -- One hundred and fifty miners struck here yesterday morning, and the zinc mine is shut down. The coal company refused to employ several of the agitators who were at the head of the strike last fall, and as a result all quit.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 73
Friday, January 14, 1898, Page 4
Pana Miners Go to Work Again
Pana, Ills. Jan. 14 -- After one month's shut down on account of incorrectness of scales and differences between operators and miners resulting there-from the Penwell Coal Mining company, mines have resumed operations. The differences between the company and men have been satisfactorily adjusted.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 147
Monday, January 17, 1898, Page 2
CONFERENCE AT CHICAGO
Coal Miners and Operators Hold a Meeting.
EXPECT HARMONY OF ACTION
Illinois Delegates Will Refuse to Consider a Scale Over Screen
--Scale Basis Remains Unchanged
-- Gross Weight to Be Demanded
Chicago, Jan. 17. -- The first demand to be made by the miners in the joint conference today will be that mining in every state be done on a gross-weight basis in the future. This will be the most radical change the miners have ever asked for, and means that Indiana, Ohio and Pennsylvania must follow the lead of Illinois, and take the screens out of the mines. It will also mean to the men a much easier method of arriving at agreements with the operators in the future, for it will remove the much-mooted question of differentials in the various fields on account of gross weight and screen mining.
      The scale basis has remained unchanged from the figure telegraphed from Columbus -- 73 cents in the Pittsburg district. This will make the rate in Ohio 65 or 66 cents and that in Illinois 72 cents and a fraction for the Wilmington field, 68 cents and a fraction in what is known as the third-vein field, and 51 cents and a fraction in the Streator field.
      These figures are for gross weight or mine run exclusively, and the Illinois miners probably will refuse to talk of any scale at all for mining over screens in the future. They have secured the passage of a law by the Illinois legislature providing that all coal shall be mined by gross weight, and while that system has not been in force in the past it has been because the men were not inclined to force matters, and preferred that the operators be given plenty of time to make the change in their mines so that the screens might disappear and the scales make their appearance with the least possible ill-feeling. What the Illinois miners will insist on is that there shall be no more coal thrown over a screen after the new scale, which It is expected will be agreed upon during the conference, shall go into effect, and they say that in the event that no satisfactory agreement is reached they are in position to make a fight for the enforcement of the law.
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Coal Companies Indicted.
Springfield, Ill., Jan. 17. -- The grand jury of the Sangamon circuit court Saturday indicted several of the companies forming the alleged Springfield coal trust. They are charged with conspiracy to defraud. The coal companies indicted are the Black Diamond Coal and Tile Company, Citizens' Coal-Mining Company, Springfield Iron Company, Springfield Coal-Mining and Tile Company, Springfield Co-operative Coal-Mining Company, Capital Coal Company, Woodside Coal Company, Sangamon Coal Company, Junction Mining Company, and the West End Coal-Mining Company. The companies formed the Springfield Coal Association, and advanced the price of coal 50 cents a ton, claiming they were compelled to advance the price to consumers because they had advanced the wages of their employes. The advance in wages to their employes, it is said, was 7½ cents a ton.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 148
Tuesday, January 18, 1898, Page 2
HARD FIGHT IS LOOKED FOR
Coal Miners and Owners Line Up for Battle
FIRST DAY OF CONFERENCE

Problem of a Scale Is Greeted with a Wide Difference of Opinion
-- Committees Appointed to Do the Preliminary Work.
Chicago, Jan. 18. -- Anti-conference declarations on the part of representatives of the mine operatives and some of the miners seem to indicate that there is a wide difference of opinion, and that there will be a stubborn fight before a new interstate agreement is made. There is no question about the feeling among the men. They are solid for an increase in wages, and an increase based on a 75-cent rate in the Pittsburg district.
      With the exception of the Pittsburg operators, it is said that the owners of mines who are here to attend the conference are in favor of granting an advance, but there are few of them who will go to the extent of the men's demand.
      As yet there has been no talk of arbitrating the differences, but the men assert their willingness either to remain as a body or leave official representatives here until time for a new scale to go into operation, rather than have the conference dissolved without having exhausted every expedient to arrive at an agreement which will keep the mines running without interruption for the next year.
      The figures which each side will present are now pretty well known, although neither has made an official proclamation of its intentions. It is conceded that the first move the miners will make will be to demand mine run in the various states, and it is said that in this demand they will have the support of many of the leading operators in Illinois. The operators in Ohio and Pennsylvania, who are not confronted with a state law, say they will have nothing to do with the mine-run proposition, and that if they are to make an agreement at this time it will be on the basis of mining over screens of various-sized meshes, as has been done in the past. On this point the hardest fight in the convention is to be waged, and it may be that the miners will refuse to consider any scale except one for gross weight.
      On the basis of a Pittsburg scale at 75 cents, that for Illinois will be a fraction over 72 cents for mine run, but the operators declare emphatically that it is too high and that they will not pay it. In this connection the Pittsburg operators say that 54 cents ought to be the scale in that district. This would amount to a reduction from the present rate, but it is said that the operators will offer it to the Joint scale committee. If it is rejected by the men the operators will offer to submit the matter to arbitration with a view to settling on a 69-cent basis. This is 6 cents less than the men demand.
      While the Illinois operators have not settled definitely on the figures that they will present to the miners from this state, they have come to an agreement on the differential which they desire to have govern in the various fields. The rate in the Danville district will be the basis. The Illinois men say they will not make this rate until they ascertain what the eastern operators are willing to pay.
      The differential as established by the Illinois operators is: Streator, 7 cents above Danville; LaSalle, 16 cents above Danville; Wilmington field, 5 cents above LaSalle; Belleville, Virden and the central part of the state the same as Danville; Mount Olive and Stanton the same as Danville, and the extreme southern portions, 4 cents below Danville. This will Include Pana and the field south of the Chicago & Alton tracks.
      An Illinois operator said last night that the Illinois men were willing to advance the price at Streator 4 cents. This would make the rate for that field 48 cents, and figured on that basis Danville would get 41 cents, LaSalle 64 cents and Wilmington 69 cents. The extreme southern field is to be advanced 5 cents. There is said to be no material difference between the differential adopted by the miners and that of the operators, but there is a difference of nearly 4 cents a ton in mining rate, and the miners are prepared to fight for this.
      In the conference yesterday it was decided that the joint scale committee should consist of four miners and four operators from each state, Illinois being given five delegates, but to have only four votes. After the adjournment of the joint conference the miners held a meeting and appointed their scale committee. The Illinois operators named as their committee A. L. Sweet, Alva Ygie, J. E. Simpson, G. W. Traer and J. M. Browning.
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Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 52, Number 3
Friday, January 21, 1898, Page 2
Wenona Miners Quit.
Wenona, Jan. 17.-- [Special.] -- Not a car of coal was hoisted at the Wenona shaft today. Instead of working the miners devoted their time to a mass meeting at the city hall. It seems they have been running for quite a period without a check weighman and they are now dissatisfied. The check weighman is a man employed by the miners, whose duty it is to check and see that each car is properly weighed and credit therefor given as it is hoisted.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 158
Saturday, January 29, 1898, Page 2
WAGE TROUBLES SETTLED
Coal Miners and Operators Have Signed the Scale.
MUCH SATISFACTION FELT
Full Text of the Interstate Conference Contract Between Operators and Operatives That Insure Wage Harmony Until April 1, 1899.
Chicago, Jan. 29. -- The victory of the coal miners over the operators in the interstate convention, which finished its labors Wednesday evening, has been clinched. The contract has been signed by the accredited representatives of the competitive coal fields and United Mine Workers of America. The agreement insures harmony between masters and men until April 1, 1899. The contract follows:
"The following agreement made and entered into in joint interstate convention in this city Jan. 26, 1898, by and between the operators and miners of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio and western Pennsylvania, known as the Pittsburg thin-vein district, witnesseth:
[1 through 8 omitted]
"9. That this contract shall remain in full force and effect from April 1, 1898, to April 1. 1899, and that our next annual interstate convention shall convene in the city of Pittsburg on the third Tuesday in January, 1899."
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February
The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 106
Monday, February 21, 1898, Page 4
MINERS' STRIKE AND ILLINOIS
State Labor Commission Reports on the Results Obtained by the Walk Out.
Springfield. Ills., Feb. 21. -- The state board of labor commissioners has just issued a long report on the coal miners' strike of last year. The report says that there were involved in the strike 507 mines and 29,465 men. In Illinois more men and mines continued in active service in the recent strike than in 1894, as was likewise the case in a number of other states -- notably In West Virginia, Kentucky and Iowa. The result was that at no time during the recent suspension were the principal markets entirely destitute of coal.
      Th miners who participated in the strike have since shared the benefit of the advance in wages which has resulted, while at thirty-nine mines the men continue to work with a little advance and at five mines no change in the price has been made. The average duration of the strike in Illinois was ninety-one days. The greatest gain was in the northern part of the state, along the region of the Rock Island road, where prices had been lowest.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 106
Monday, February 21, 1898, Page 4
Assumption Coal Strike.
Assumption, Ill., Feb. 31. -- [Special.] -- The drivers of the Assumption Coal Company went out on a strike this morning, throwing 200 men out of employment. They demand uniform wages and four days work per week. There is no prospect of settlement.
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March
The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 119
Tuesday, March 8, 1898, Page 4
NEVER-ENDING COAL TROUBLE
Breaks Out with a Prospect of Causing a General Strike in Illinois.
St. Louis. March 8. -- It is stated here that another strike of Illinois coal miners is probable as a result of the cut in wages by the Big Muddy Coal company, of Cartersville. The Big Muddy Coal company has made a contract with the miners in its employ at a cut of 6 cents below the Springfield scale, or 38 cents a ton.
      The contract is to be in force for one year from April 1, the date on which the Springfield scale goes into effect. The officers of the company give as the reason for the cut that on account of shipping distance and local conditions the company cannot compete with the others under the Springfield scale. Officers of other companies say that if the Big Muddy is permitted to cut they will have to do so also.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 210
Thursday, March 31, 1898, Page 2
Dispute on Pay Rates
Danville, Ill., March 31. -- The joint conference of Illinois miners and coal operators adjourned Wednesday without accomplishing anything. They will meet again April 12, when President Ratchford is expected to be present. The subject of dispute is the rate to be paid machine men. Until April 12 the operators who so desire can pay their machine men the rates demanded by the miners.
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April
The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 211
Friday, April 1, 1898, Page 2
GENERAL STRIKE LIKELY
Coal Miners Want Increased Wages and the Eight-Hour Day.
Pittsburg. Pa., April 1. -- All indications point to a general strike before the end of the week of the miners in the eastern bituminous districts,comprising West Virginia. Maryland, and the Hocking Valley. A strike was ordered at the recent Pittsburg convention of miners, since which time all efforts to bring about an amicable settlement have failed. The miners demand an eight hour day and an advance in wages corresponding to that agreed upon at the Chicago conference of miners and operators, in which agreement the miners of the districts named were not included. A strike will call out nearly 50,000 men and will affect the entire district shipping to the seaboard, as well as a few of the Ohio districts.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 214
Tuesday, April 5, 1898, Page 2
COAL MINERS WILL STRIKE.
General Tie-Up Threatened in the East.
ALREADY MANY HAVE QUIT.
Operators Refuse to Acknowledge the Interstate Agreement
Nothing of This Can Avert a General Suspension of Coal Mining.
Pittsburg. April 5. -- All indications point to a general suspension of coal mining along the Monongahela river, and by Wednesday it is expected 10,000 diggers will be on a strike.
      The operators have been requested by the miners to acknowledge the interstate agreement and comply with its terms. Thus far only a portion of the firms have acceded to the demands, and the others propose to fight it out with their employes and the United Mine Workers' Association. Nothing short of the operators complying with the conditions of the Chicago agreement can avert a general strike, and it is probable the river operators will experience a shut-down similar to that which the railroad operators had on their hands last summer.
      Already 2,000 diggers have struck, and 3,000 are expected to quit work. On Wednesday a monster meeting is scheduled, and it is almost a certainty that the strike will be made general at that time.
      The operators say they were not parties to the Interstate agreement, and do not propose to live up to its terms.
Strike Is Ordered
Wheeling, W. Va., April 5. -- The conference between the miners and operators of the Wheeling district concerning the Chicago scale ended in a disagreement, and a strike in all the mines involving 2,000 men, was ordered by the district board. The operators would not consent to replacing existing screens with the size called for by the Chicago agreement.
Miners Must Go Back
Massillon Ohio, April 5. -- President Ratchford of the United .Mine-Workers of America declares the strike of the Massillon miners unreasonable and uncalled for. Steps will be taken to bring it to a close immediately.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island
Volume 46, Number 143
Tuesday, April 5, 1898, Page 2
GENERAL STRIKE OF MINERS
Looks Like Nothing Will Avert Trouble Along the Monongahela..
Pittsburg, April 5. -- All indications point to a general suspension of coal mining along she Monongahela river, and by tomorrow it is expected that 10,000 diggers will be on strike. The operators have been requested by the miners to acknowledge the Interstate agreement and comply with its terms. Thus far only a portion of the firms has acceded to the demands, and the others propose to fight it out with their employes and the United Mine Workers' association. Nothing short of the operators complying with the conditions of the Chicago agreement can avert a general strike, and it is probable that the river operators will experience a shut-down similar to that which the railroad operators had on their hands last summer.
      Already 2,000 diggers have struck and 3,000 are expected to quit work today. Tomorrow a monster meeting is scheduled for West Elizabeth, which will be attended by about 6,000 miners, and it is almost a certainty that the strike will be made general at that time. The operators say they were not parties to the interstate agreement and do not propose to live up to its terms.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island
Volume 46, Number 145
Thursday, April 7, 1898, Page 4
Mine Situation in Illinois
Springfield, Ills., April 7. -- The miners at Taylorville met yesterday and decided not to go to work until the new scale is paid. The operators claim that there was an agreement with the miners to work until May 1, when the new scale goes into effect. The miners at Edinburg have gone out because they have not been paid, they claim. The striking miners at Mount Olive and Staunton have returned to work. At Danville the drivers have struck for higher wages.
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The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
Wednesday, April 12, 1898, Page 6
QUIET AT PANA
Since the Departure of Militia Affairs Have Quieted Down - Negroes Departing
      Pana, Ill., April 10. -- The miners' strike situation in Pana is quieter and more settled, and has been so since Sheriff Downey and his 200 special deputies relieved the military two weeks ago, than at any time during the past 12 months, and business and social circles are fast resuming the state existing before the strike began 12 months ago.
      Companies of imported negro miners are departing daily and union miners' officials state that within a month there will not be 50 negroes here. Three car loads of negroes are billed to leave for Birmingham, Ala., and South McAlester, I. T., Sunday.
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1898 UMWA emblem
 
May
The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
No. 31, Wednesday, May 11, 1898, Page 2
      The entire 600 employes of the four Pana coal mines went out on a strike for increased wages.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 179
Friday, May 20, 1898, Page 4
Will Retain the Chicago Scale
      Springfield, Ills., May 20. The coal operators of the state at their meeting yesterday afternoon decided to retain the scale adopted at Chicago in February. The miners of the state met and also voted to retain the Chicago scale. The only operators objecting th this scale are those on the Chicago and Alton railroad south of Springfield, with the exception of Chatham and Carlinville and the operators at Pana, Taylorville, Assumption and Carterville. The minors will present a scale for machine mining, demanding a 7-cent differential between machine and pick work. The operators are willing to concede three-quarters of the pick price for machine mining and the scale will cause considerable dispute.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 251
Fiday, May 20, 1898, Page 4
TO ADJUST MINING SCALE.
Operators and Miners of Illinois Will Meet Jointly.
      Springfield, Ill., May 20 -- State meetings were held Thursday by the Coal Operators' association and the United Mine Workers preparatory to a joint conference to be held to adjust the scale In the Fourth district. For some time past the mines at Virden, Girard, Nilwood, Pana, Assumption and other places in the central and southern field have been shut down, the operators claiming that the new state scale put them at the mercy of their competitors in other districts. The differential in the price of hand and machine mining, it is claimed, is equitable.
      The association voted 38 to 18 against changing the scale. Similar action was taken by the miners, at whose meeting President Hunter and about 100 delegates were present.
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June
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July
The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 295
Tuesday, July 12, 1898, Page 7
Four Great Coal Mines Idle.
      Pana, Ill., July 12. -- Notwithstanding that Pana has four of the largest coal mines in Illinois, not a ton of coal has been dug since April 1. Operators announced one week ago that they would open their mines with non-union miners, but their mines have been surrounded by union miners, who have thus far prevented non-union men from taking their places. The union is dally receiving aid from state and national organizations and is able to remain out until the strike is settled. The operators refuse to arbitrate.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 226
Thursday, July 14, 1898, Page 4
Miner Ask for Arbitration.
      Springfield, Ills., July 14. -- Application was received by the state board of arbitration Tuesday from the miners at three shafts at Pana asking the intervention of the board to settle the strike. Over 600 miners and three shafts -- Penwells, Springside and Pana are affected. The men have been out since April 1. In February at the state conference of Illinois operators and the U. M. W., held at Springfield the scale for Pana was fixed at 40 cents per ton, to go into effect April 1, the operators locked the men out on the latter data and the mines have remained idle.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 297
Thursday, July 14, 1898 , Page 7
Strikers Want Arbitration.
      Springfield, Ill., July 14. -- The late employes of the Pana Coal company, the Penwell Coal company and the Springfield Coal company, all of Pana, have petitioned the state board for an adjustment of the difficulties existing between the mine owners and themselves.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 228
Saturday, July 16, 1898, Page 3
      Six hundred miners continue idle at Pana, Ills., and watch the four mines daily to prevent non-union men resuming work.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 301
Tuesday, July 19, 1898, Page 7
Coal Mines Still Idle.
      Pana, Ill., July 19. -- Non-union men who were expected to work for the Penwell Mining company failed to put in an appearance Monday, and as a result the mine did not start up. The company had made every preparation for their protection, a strong guard of armed deputy sheriffs and policemen being stationed around the property and in the streets leading to it. An attempt was made to disperse the crowds and a number of arrests were made. Another effort to start up will be made.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 233
Friday, July 22, 1898, Page 1
JUST SPLIT THE DIFFERENCE
Decision of the Arbitration in the Mine Wage Difficulty at Pana.
      Springfield. Ill., July 22. -- The state board of arbitration last night decided the case of the striking miners at Pana by awarding the miners 33 cents per ton, gross weight, and recommending that certain orders which the coal companies at Pana have been issuing to their employes and then discounting 6 per cent, when they were cashed be discontinued. The scale awarded by the board of arbitration is 7 cents per ton less than the scale adopted at the Springfield convention, and 7 cents more than what the operators were paying when the mines shut down last April before the Springfield convention.
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Bureau County Tribune, Princeton, Bureau County, Illinois
Volume 26, Number 5
Friday, July 22, 1898, Page 12
      The proceeds of the big picnic of the United Mine Workers, last Saturday, at Guenther's Grove, near Spring Valley, were for the purpose of helping the striking miners at the Pana shafts in their tight for scale wages. It is understood that they were being forced to work for ten cents below the scale. It is in order to prevent the spread of this lowered scale that they are being encouraged and support is being given. It was a gala day for Spring Valley. Miners from all the neighboring mining communities were present. State Secretary Ryan, of Draidwood, State President Hunter, of Streator, and National President Ratchford were there. The latter discussed the labor question and the welfare of the organization over which he presides.
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Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 52, Number 29
Friday, July 22, 1898, Page 12
PANA MINERS HOLD OUT.
Successfully Withstand Efforts to Open the Mines
-- Nearly aTragedy.
      Pana, July 21. -- Attempt to operate the mines with non-union miners this morning came near resulting in a tragedy. Union miners and their wives have day and night surrounded the Springside, Penwell and Pana mines to intercept non-union miners. No man showed up for work at the Penwell or Pana mines. Two men, farmers, started for the Springside mine and were met by union miners, who, upon approaching them, asked for an interview, and were answered by one of the men drawing a revolver and firing into the crowd. The miner who was aimed at dodged, but his face was burned with powder from the explosion. He then attacked the two men unarmed and Charles Spires, one of the men. was so badly beaten that a surgeon was required. Mayor Penwell, one of the operators of the Penwell mine, said today that he would operate his mine if he had to use a stockade.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 304
Friday, July 22, 1898, Page 2
Mining Rate Fixed at 33 Cents.
      Springfield, Ill., July 22. -- The state board of arbitration in an opinion rendered Thursday fixes the mining price at Pana at 33 cents a ton, run of mine. The operators refused to pay the price fixed by the Springfield scale (40 cents), effective April 1, and closed their mine. The men offered to work for 35 cents, but this proposition was rejected. Then the men, about 600 in all, asked the board of arbitration to fix the price. The opinion is not binding on the operators, for the reason that they did not join In the proceedings, but it is believed that It will be accepted by them.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 235
Monday, July 25, 1898, Page 1
ONLY TWO DARED TO WORK
Situation at the Pana Mine Shows No Material Change.
      Pana, Ills., July 25. -- The sixth successive daily attempt to operate the three mines of Pana with non-union men, thereby breaking the miners' organization, was attempted Saturday morning under new tactics by the operators, but it was a flat failure. Heretofore the endeavor to operate the mines with non-union miners, guarded by extra police and deputies, was made at the Penwell mine, but without success.
      Saturday morning the change was made from the Penwell to the Springfield mine, the latter mine being out side the city limits. Here Sheriff Ira Coburn, of Taylorville, a large force of armed deputies and the operators concentrated to guard the mine and escort the new miners to work. The old employes and their wives were on the streets leading to the mine ready for any non-union men who might attempt to pass their lines. Only two non-union miners, both residing in a house close to the mine, under guard, entered the pits.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 307
Tuesday, July 26, 1898, Page 7
COAL MINERS STILL IDLE.
Operators Are Unable to lnduce Non-Union Men to Go to Work.
      Pana, Ill., July 26. -- Monday opened with a renewal of hostilities between the operators' non-union men and the union miners, the scene of the excitement being the Springside mine, just outside the city limits, where Sheriff Coburn and a large force of armed deputies guarded the shaft, offering protection to any non-union miners desiring to pass the union lines to the pits. Seven men entered the mine. The whistles of all the mines blew at 7 o'clock, but no non-union miners appeared for work. The union miners have a force of sixty men on all roads and entrances to the mines night and day. The operators refused to divulge their further intentions as to resuming operations.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 237
Wednesday, July 27, 1898, Page 4
Situation in the Pana Mine Strike.
      Pana, Ills., July 27. -- The Pana and Penwell coal companies, which tried to operate their mines with non-union labor, have given up the attempt. Yesterday morning their whistles were silent. and the Pana company removed their mules from the mines. They say they will shut-down permanently rather than pay the Springfield scale, but If they do so they will lose all their winter contracts. People here do not look upon the threat as serious.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 3, Number 308
Wednesday, July 27, 1898 , Page 7
Seven Men at Work.
      Pana, Ill., July 27. -- The Penwell and Pana Coal companies' mines for the first time since attempting to resume operations with non-union miners, failed to blow their whistles Tuesday morning and made no attempt whatever to operate the mines. In fact, they had their mules removed from the mines. At the Springside mine, under a heavy guard of deputy sheriffs with Winchesters, seven men, boarding in the company's house near the shaft, resumed work.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 238, Thursday, July 28, 1898, Page 3
NOBODY WANTS TO WORK.
Situation at the Pana Coal Mines
-- Strikers on Trial.
      Pana, Ills., July 28. -- The only new movement in the miners' strike situation yesterday was the act of the deputy sheriffs in conveying several nonunion miners to the Springside shaft in their buggies. The Pana and Pennwell mines continue idle, notwithstanding that deputy sheriffs and extra police continue to guard them and offer protection to any non-union miners who choose to enter the mines. It appears as though no miner desired to work under the existing conditions. The miners received $1,000 yesterday from the state organization to aid them in caring for their families during the strike. The event of the day was the trial of the seven miners George McNally, James Boyle. Charles Auten. David McGavic. Harry Smith, John Holsolla and Joe Coyniski arrested by order of Mayor Penwell, who picked out the leaders of the union organization who were on streets leading to the Penwell mine, and ordered the deputies to arrest them. The case was first called in Judge Pierce's court, but the defense took a change of venue to Judge Springtime's court. The whole time was occupied trying to get a jury, without obtaining a single man.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 239
Friday, July 29, 1898, Page 4
WILL GO FOR PENWELL NOW
Strikers at Pana Released, There Being No Case Against Them.
      Pana, Ills., July 29. -- The trial of the seven union miners arrested at the instigation of Mayor Warren Penwell for assembling on the streets leading to the Penwell mine, of which he is one of the owners, was brought to a sudden ending yesterday afternoon, when only half of the evidence for the prosecution was in. City Attorney Morgan dismissed the case, and the miners were released from custody. The evidence of the prosecution was largely in favor of the miners, and the only proceeding for the city was to dismiss the case. The arrested miners have instituted suit against Mayor Penwell and his bondsmen for $50,000 damages for false imprisonment and defamation of character.
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Bureau County Tribune, Princeton, Bureau County, Illinois
Volume 27, Number 1
Friday, July 29, 1898 , Page 3
Mine Strike Inquiry.
      Springfield, Ill. -- The mining price fixed by the state hoard of arbitration for the Pana mines is 33 cents a ton, run of mine. The price fixed by the Springfield scale, effective April 1, was 40 cents. The companies refused to pay it and closed the mines. The men, about 600, have been idle ever since. The men offered to work for 35 cents, but this was ignored. They then asked the board of arbitration to fix a price, and the operators not joining in the proceeding, the opinion does not bind them, but is only advisory. Taking into consideration the existing conditions and circumstances it is the opinion of the board that the mining price at the Pana mines should be 33 cents per ton, run of mine, the company in each case furnishing all supplies except powder, and that payment of wages should be entirely in money or its equivalent, and that the coupon system be abolished.
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August
The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 242
Tuesday, August 2, 1898, Page 1
Strike May Be Settled.
      Pana, Ills., Aug. 2. -- Developments pointing to a settlement of the miners' lockout. existing here since April 1, were made known yesterday. The operators offer to open the Pana mine with union men, granting th scale price for day labor and paying the miners 30 cents for digging, the company furnishing all supplies except powder. This is 3 cents under the scale price as placed by the state board of arbitration, and the company claims this is the limit it can pay and operate its mine without loss. The proposition has been submitted to the men and they have refused to accept it, but it is believed the Pana company and men will come to terms within a few days.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 4
Tuesday, August 2, 1898, Page 7
May Settle Pana Strike.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 2. -- Developments pointing to a settlement of the miners' lockout, existing here since April 1, were made known today. After a conference with the owners of the Pana coal mine, Supt. Julius Broehl returned to Pana, summoned George G. Cravens, president of the Miners' union, and submitted to him a proposition to open the Pana mine with union men, granting the scale price for day labor and paying the miners 30 cents for digging, the company furnishing all supplies, except powder. This is 3 cents under the scale price as placed by the state board of arbitration, and the company claims It is all it can pay and operate the mine without loss.
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Bureau County Tribune, Princeton, Bureau County, Illinois
Volume 27, Number 2
Friday, August 5, 1898, Page 3
Pana Miners Are Set Free.
      Pana: The trial of the seven union miners arrested on tho 18th at the instigation of Mayor Warren Penwell for assembling on the streets leading to the Penwell mine, of which he is one of the owners, was brought to a sudden ending this afternoon, when, after only half of the evidence for the prosecution was in. City Attorney J. H. Morgan dismissed tho case and the miners were released from custody. The evidence of the prosecution was largely in favor of the miners. Not a witness for tho defendants was examined, although over a hundred had been summoned. The miners, through their attorneys, have instituted suit against Mayor Penwell and his bondsmen, George V., Claude T., Orve K. and Max Penwell, for $50,000 damages for false imprisonment and defamation of characters. The case will come up at the August term of the Circuit court.
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Albion Journal, Albion, Illinois
Volume 30, Number 4
Thursday, August 11, 1898, Page 1
      Coles County Plaindealer: The union miners at Pana are receiving an average of about $1,000 per week to aid them in keeping the wolf from the door during the strike which they have been waging since the fore part of April. It is but fair to presume that a goodly portion of this fund comes from the pockets of the mine operators in Northern Illinois, whose interests are best served by at Pana closed. Those Northern Illinois operators are wise in their day and generation. But as much can not be said for those Pana miners who are permitting themselves to be made monkeys of.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 253
Monday, August 15, 1898, Page 1
NON-UNION MEN SHOOT.
Exciting Incident of the Coal Mine Troubles Near Pana, Ill.
      Pana. Ill., Aug. 15. -- Ed Jones and Jim Palmer, non-union miners employed at Springdale, shot and wounded several strikers this morning, while the strikers were attempting to persuade them not to go to work. Jones and Palmer were arrested. Great excitement prevails and the jail is surrounded by several hundred strikers.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 16
Tuesday, August 16, 1898, Page 1
COAL MINERS MAY STRIKE.
General Tie Up Throughout Illinois Is Threatened
      Springfield, Ill, Aug. 16. -- From indications tonight the 26,000 coal miners of Illinois are standing upon the very verge of a general strike, which may extend not only to the entire state, but which may even reach other coal fields over the country.
      Under the agreement reached at Terre Haute, Ind., by operators of the Virden district, which includes all the mines on the Chicago & Alton south of Springfield, and National President Ratchford, this is the best day allotted to President Ratchford to settle the pending strike in the Virden field, where 600 miners have been out of employment since April 1, when the new scale went into effect.
      Under the agreement reached at Terre Haute, President Ratchford was to either settle the strike or leave the settlement to such members of the national board as he might designate. He selected the entire board, and it has been in session here four days of last week.
      Nearly every prominent operator in Illinois is in Springfield to attend the meeting today. All will insist that if the agreement is broken for the Virden district operators it will have to be broken for them, as they cannot compete with the Virden operators under a lower scale.
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FIVE STRIKERS WOUNDED.
Nonunion Men at. Pana, Ill., Fire Into a Crowd of Old Miners.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 16. -- Five union miners were wounded, some perhaps fatally, with bullets fired by two non-union men in a clash here Monday morning.
      The shooting occurred on Cedar street, which leads direct to the Springside Coal Company's mine. James Palmer and Edward Jones, non-union miners, with revolvers in hand, rode into the lines of several hundred union miners and began firing.
      The union men were congregated beside the highway for the purpose of interviewing non-union miners and persuading them to discontinue work.
      The bullets seriously wounded Michael Yermacaviz in the groin, shattered Andrew Toomey's right hand, grazed the heads of John Vangordon and William Baker, and another miner is reported to have been dangerously injured.
      The prisoners were released later under heavy bonds, with the Springside Coal Company as security.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 255
Wednesday, August 17, 1898, Page 4
ILLINOIS COAL MINING SCALE
Conference at Springfield Makes Little Progress in Settling the Same.
      Springfield, Aug. 17. -- At yesterday afternoon's session, of the conference of the coal operators with the national executives' committee of the United Mine Workers of America regarding the reduction of the price of mining in the Chicago and Alton district Chairman Mitchell, vice president of the United Mine Workers' union, ruled that the matter was one in which the national executive board had jurisdiction.
      Judge Newsame, of Peoria, said should the board grant the operators of the Chicago and Alton sub-district a reduction in their scale he would reduce his scale. J. D. Scrabbe, of St. Louis; James Taylor, of, Peoria, and J. C. Simpson, general manager of the Consolidated Coal company of St. Louis, made similar threats. An adjournment was finally taken until this morning to allow the Indiana operators to send a representative here and be heard.
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Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 52, Number 33
Friday, August 19, 1898, Page 2
PANA MINERS EXCITED
Two Non-Union Men Fire Into a Crowd of Union Strikers.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 15. -- The coal miners strike took on a serious aspect this morning. Ed Jones and Jim Palmer, nonunion men, who had been working in the Springdale mine under guard, started for the mine this morning on horseback. On the way they were surrounded by strikers, who tried to persuade them not to go in. They emptied their revolvers Into the crowd wounding three or four and then rode off. Some miners then armed themselves and a crowd of them pursued Jones and Palmer. The latter at his home stood off the strikers by placing his women folks in front of him till the officers arrested him. Jones also was arrested and with Palmer placed in jail. Great excitement, and the jail is surrounded by several hundred strikers.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 20
Saturday, August 20, 1898, Page 4
FIGHTING EXPECTED AT PANA.
It Probably Follow the Importation of Negroes from the South.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 20. -- Sheriff Coburn of Taylorville has posted laws regarding the assembling of miners, intimidation, etc. He also swore in a large force of extra deputy sheriffs to guard the negro and foreign laborers who will be brought here from the south Sunday and put to work at Springside mine Monday morning. Many of the deputies summoned have refused to serve, and the sheriff was compelled to go out of the city to secure men. Talk is rife of an indignation meeting of citizens to denounce the action of the coal operators in bringing in negroes to take the place of union miners whose homes are here, whose families are half clothed and who have their homes half paid for in building associations. President George G. Cravens of the local union went to Springfield to confer with Gov. Tanner regarding the placing of inexperienced men in the mines. There is little doubt that the bringing of the negroes will cause bloodshed. The miners have received information that the aid of fully 5,000 miners of the state will be sent here upon their call to assist them in their fight for their rights. The most serious time ever had in local mining circles is looked for Monday.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 262
Thursday, August 25, 1898, Page 1
MINE SITUATION AT PANA.
New Negro Miners Being Induced by Strikers Not to Go to Work.
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 25. -- Governor Tanner received a message yesterday morning at 10:20 from Ira Coburn, sheriff at Pana. Ills., stating that 150 imported negro miners had arrived to go to work in the mines there, and that serious trouble was anticipated at any moment. Yesterday morning David Ross, secretary of the state board of labor, telegraphed to Nelson Rutledge, the state mine inspector of the Fifth district, residing at Alton, to proceed to Pana immediately and ascertain by personal examination if the imported negro miners have had two years' experience, as required by law. Ross says that until they have had that experience they cannot work in the state.
      Late yesterday afternoon union miners had succeeded in inducing a number of Alabama negroes to leave the Springside mining camp and others were deserted. Several negroes met session with the union miners at their hall and stated publicly that they had been misled by Operators Overholt and Pohl. An interview with the negroes developed that there are many union labor men among them, and they were induced to go to Pana under the statement that they were to be taken to Chicago to work in the steel works. It is believed that they will not remain at Pana after learning the full situation.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 24
Thursday, August 25, 1898, Page 1
PANA LOOKING FOR TROUBLE.
Negro Miners Arrive but Are Not So Far Molested.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 25, midnight. -- The town is in a state of intense though pent up excitement, and there is a feeling that trouble may break out at any moment. The strikers are ominously quiet.
      Three carloads of negro miners reached the Springside colliery at 9 o'clock Wednesday morning. Their arrival was not even suspected by the strikers, but a second trainload of colored miners Is expected by the operators before the end of the week. They declare 1,500 skilled miners can be had in Alabama for the asking, and probably 600 will be imported altogether.
      The train was sidetracked until 1 a. m. so as to reach here at 9 a. m. There were desertions at Cairo and Centralia, where a committee from the strikers boarded the train.
      The striking miners have created a diversion by calling for the presence of Walton Rutledge of Alton, who is district mine inspector. David Ross ordered him to proceed to Pana to ascertain if the negroes are experts, and he arrived tonight. There is a law requiring that in each chamber there must be one miner who can prove two years' experience. The manner of proof may give trouble, though the operators say the majority of the negroes are experts.
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Weekly Pantagraph, Bloomington, Illinois
Volume 52, Number 34
Friday, August 26,1898
NEGROES ARE AT PANA
They Are Seared Out by the Union Miners There
-- 5,000 Miner Coming.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 24. -- Sheriff Coburn assembled 125 deputies at the city hall at 6 o'clock this morning, swore in all and gave them instructions, after which they adjourned for an hour, preparatory to being armed with Winchesters ready for the march to the union depot to meet the negroes from Alabama and escort them to the mines. The miners are being reinforced hourly by miners from all over the state, and it is estimated fully 5,000 will be here by Thursday morning. The miners were assembled near the truck of the Illinois Central in large bodies, awaiting the arrival of the negroes.
      The Illinois Central train arrived at 8:45 from Birmingham, Ala., with 200 negroes. The train rushed through the city at twenty-five miles an hour to the Springside coal mine, where the negroes were unloaded under a guard of deputy .
      Several hundrqd miners at the depot met the blacks to talk with them, but were refused the privilege by Sheriff Coburn.
      The grounds at the Springside mine are under a heavy guard. Citizens are not permitted to pass the lines, on penalty of being shot. The miner leaders asked the governor to take action regarding the mining efficiency of negroes. He answered he will send a state mine inspector to examine the men. The district mine president, Popping, of Danville, and Brideford, of Springfield, are here. They will have all the miners of this district here tonight. Miners at Taylorville, Moweaqua, Asumption, Sandoval, Springfield, Danville and Coffen are on the way here.
      The union miners succeeded in inducing a number of negroes to leave the Springside mining camp. Others are deserting. The negroes met in session with the union miners at their hall and state publicly they had been misled by the operators and intend returning home. Miners provide food for the negroes as fast as they leave the camp. The deputy sheriffs are doing all in their power to keep the negroes on the Springside grounds by threatening to kill them if they leave. The ignorant blacks are half frightened to death and shed tears with their pleading to be permitted to pass the deputies' lines and leave the city.
      The union miners agreed to pay tho fare of the negroes to Alabama and it is fully expected all will leave the city by Thursday night.
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A SPRINGFIELD ACCOUNT
David Ross Telegraphed Mining Report to Gov. Tanner at Chicago.
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 24. -- [Special.] -- Official information received in the city today indicates that everything was orderly at Pana, where the importation of negro miners seems likely to cause trouble. One hundred and fifty negro miners arrived in the city, but before they were allowed to go to work David Ross, secretary of the bureau of labor statistics, checked them by telegraphing to Walton Rutledge, of Alton, instructing him to proceed at once to Pana to ascertain whether the negroes had had two years' experience, and Mr. Ross asked Rutledge to find out by personal examination if these negroes had served this apprenticeship. If they have not they will not he allowed to go to work.
      Sheriff Ira Coburn stating the 150 negroes had arrived and would be set to work. The telegram stated that trouble was anticipated. He had written the secretary a long letter detailing the situation, but this did not arrive today.
      Gov. Tanner left for Chicago and Mr. Ross was compelled to send his report of what he learned at Pana Tuesday by wire. The contents of the report will not be made public until it has reached Gov. Tanner.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 263
Friday, August 26, 1898, Page 1
MINE STRIKE AT PANA.
No Riots Have Occurred There Yet
-- Negroes "Mighty Onsartin."
      Pana, Ills., Aug. 26. -- Considering all circumstances, matters ere exceedingly quiet in mining circles and no riots or lawlessness is being resorted to by the miners, although their ranks have been greatly strengthened by their outside brethren from all over the state. The United Mine Workers' leader. John Mitchell, of Spring Valley; National Vice President J. W. Russell, of Danville; State Vice President W. D. Ryan; State Secretary and Treasurer Cartright, of the Springfield district, and President Topham, of the Evansville district, are here advising with the miners and aiding in every way possible to have the law respected and lived up to. Their opinion is that all remaining negroes, some fifty in all, will leave the city in a few days, after they have learned the exact situation.
      Operator Penwell stated yesterday that it was the intention of the local operators' association to shipped in 150 more negroes from Alabama, but the negroes who have left camp say the operators would be severely dealt with should they return to Alabama. The negro deserters who left the Springdale mining camp Wednesday, some sixty-five in all, have notified their friends at Birmingham, Woodward and Bessemer, Ala., of the conditions existing here, advising them to have nothing to do with any other agents with propositions to come to Pana. The union miners sent thirty-seven of the deserting negroes to Chicago Wednesday night in a special and twenty were sent back to Alabama, while several walked out of town in different directions during the night.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 26
Saturday, August 27, 1898
SEEK MORE NEGROES.
Operators Agents Looking for Black Men In the South.
      Pana, Ill., Aug. 27. -- The negroes imported from the south to take the places of the striking miners in the Springside, Pana and Penwell mines must leave Pana or suffer the consequences. If they refuse it is highly probable that force will be used and that the local miners will be assisted by hundreds of their Illinois brothers who are anxiously awaiting the word to come here.
      The negroes, guarded at the Springside mine by armed deputy sheriffs, are not allowed, it is said, to leave the mine property. The deputies will allow no miner to speak to them. The operators say they have contracted with southern agents to furnish several hundred more negroes, but it is not believed the men will arrive in Pana, as President Hunter of the state United Miners' union has started for Alabama to intercept them and explain the situation. It is believed that if the negroes have been deceived by the operators, as the first importation was. President Hunter will be able to induce them to turn back.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 28
Tuesday, August 30,1898
May Close Springside Mine.
      Springfield, Ill., Aug. 30. -- David Ross, secretary of the state federation of labor, has ordered Norton Rutledge of Alton, the mine inspector for the fifth district, back to make another inspection. Reports have been received by Mr. Ross to the effect that the Springside mine has no certified fire boss and that a portion of the shaft in the Springside mine is out of order. If either of these reports is found to be correct by the inspector the mine will be closed.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 267
Wednesday, August 31, 1898, Page 1
OUTLOOK IS OMINOUS.
Fear That a Conflict in Pana is Now Unavoidable.
Pana, Ill., Aug. 31. -- The situation here is ominous and it is not believed a conflict can be avoided. The plans were laid by the union miners last night to bring out the non union negroes at work in the Springside mine under guard of a hundred deputies armed with Winchesters. But the mine leaders are advised they are not able with revolver and a few Winchesters to cope with the deputies. They declare however, they will bring the negroes out at any cost and a move against the mine is likely tonight or before by almost 3,000 miners from various parts of the state gathered here.
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September
The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 30
Thursday, September 1, 1898, Page 1
WILL ENJOIN THE MINE
Bloodless Solution of the Pana Strike Problem Probable
Pana, Ill., Sept. I. --The visiting and local miners to the number of perhaps 800 held a meeting Wednesday, and after an exciting debate determined to wait until State Mine Inspector Walton Rutledge of Alton had examined the Springside mine before attacking the deputy sheriffs and forcing the negroes out.
      At 10 a. m. the locked out miners received from President William Wright of the Cartervllle district union a report of Mine Inspector Rutledge's investigation, and of his intention to enjoin the Springside Coal company from further operating the mine until certain repairs are made and a fire boss is employed.
      There is talk of a fight without the support of the union officials, but it unlikely.
      Inspector Rutledge has gone to Taylorville to institute injunction proceedings, after posting the required two days' notice.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 31, Friday, September 2, 1898, Page 1
TROOPS ORDERED TO PANA
Battery B. Is Dispatched from Galesburg.
SITUATION VERY SERIOUS.
Mob of Miners in Control in Control at Pana
-- Operators Captured and Held
-- Labor Leaders Have Had Work to Restrain Their Followers.
Galesburg, Ill., Sept. 2. -- Battery B, I. N. G., received orders last night to leave for Pana. About sixty men, with five Gatling guns, under command of Lieut. Frank Henry, started on a special Chicago, Burlington & Quincy train by way of Beardstown.
      Springfield. Ill., Sept. 2. -- Notwithstanding repeated appeals from the sheriff of Christian county and from the mayor and prominent citizens of Pana, Gov. Tanner has not yet been convinced that a necessity has arisen for the use of the militia, although recent developments indicate that this point may be reached in a few hours.
      The mining troubles at Pana have reached a serious crisis, and both the officers of the law and the leaders of the miners' organization realize it. State President Hunter, State Secretary Ryan and other officials called on the governor to ascertain his policy in case of an outbreak, and also whether he could in any way prevent the importation of miners from other states The governor announced that he had no sympathy with the policy of labor as pursued by the Pana operators, but said there was no law to prevent the men from coming here and working. He said that so far as his action in a supposed case was concerned he would not "cross that bridge until he got to it."
      The only organized militia left in the state are the battery at Galesburg and naval militia at Moline and Alton. These will be used first in case of necessity, and if more soldiers are needed a provisional regiment raised for the war with Spain can be converted into a national guard regiment. To do this it would only he necessary to revoke the leave of absence of one of the national guard regiments in the United States service, muster it out of the national guard and muster a provisional regiment in its place. By doing this the governor would keep within the law and not exceed the number of national guard organizations fixed by law.
      David Ross, secretary of the state bureau of labor statistics, left for Pana last night to look into the situation personally and acquaint the governor with the facts as they exist there.
      Pana, Ill., Sept. 2. -- Only the earnest pleading of John Mitchell, William Topham and other officials of the Coal Miners' union prevented an armed demonstration against the Springside coal shaft. David J. Overholt and Lewis J. Overholt were captured about 1:20 p. m. by twenty miners and marched toward the shaft.
      Dr. A. Millard, an old baptist preacher, received severe injuries while trying to rescue the Overholts. He was knocked down with a revolver, his nose and jawbone being broken. Internal injuries were sustained and he may not recover.
      The officials of the miners managed to induce the more frantic men to listen to reason. Some one cried, "Let us have a parade," and, with a cheer, the men moved toward the business part of the town, with the Overholts in the front line. At Schuyler's bank the crowd halted and the prisoners were taken into the president's private office, where they conferred for a time with the principal officials of the miners. In a half hour they were released and hurried to the shaft.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 269
Friday, September 2, 1898, Page 1
TROOPS GO TO PANA
Mine Situation There Is Taking on a Very Threatening Aspect.
SHERIFF IS POWERLESS TO ACT
Miners Capture Two Operators and Refuse to Release Them
-- Minister Who Interfered Badly Beaten
-- Trouble Is Caused by Importation of Negro Laborers Into the Disturbed Coal District
-- Spirited Talk by Governor Tanner.
Galesburg, Ills., Sept. 2. -- Battery B, Ilinois National Guard, received orders last night to leave for Pana. About sixty men with five Gatling guns under command of Lieutenant Frank Henry will start on a special Chicago, Burlington and Quincy train by, way of Beardstown as soon as possible.
      Springfield, Ills.. Sept. 2. -- A State Register special from Pana says that George A. Powell, president of the Penwell Coal company, escaped the miners by crawling through his mine through the escapement shaft to the Springside mine, a mile and one-half distant.
      Springfield, Ills., Sept. 2. -- John W. Kitchell, a prominent capitalist and attorney of Pana, and Mayor Warren Powell, of Pana, a son of the operator of the Penwell mine and himself a stock holder, and Sheriff Ira Colburn, to whom Governor Tanner referred Mayor Powell's telegram, and whom he asked to investigate the situation, all sent messages to Governor Tanner yesterday on the mine situation. Mr. Kitchell telephoned Governor Tanner yesterday afternoon, and the conversation between himself and Governor Tanner was very animated.
City Controlled by a Mob.
Kitchell declared that the city of Pana was in control of a mob and that two of the Messrs. Overholts, operators of the Springside mine, had been captured and were being held. Kitchell stated that the mob threatened to march to the mines protected by the deputies with the two operators held in the van and to capture and seize the property. He declared the civil authorities had lost control of the situation, Governor Tanner replied saying he would not send troops to guard mines worked by imported labor. It is not the intention of the legislature or taxpayers, or the province of the National Guard, he said, that it be used as a means of protection to imported labor, many of them convicts of southern states, in peaceable enjoyment of jobs which actually belong to our own citizens.
Will Not Protect Convict Labor.
"Will you use arms to release those men restrained of liberty by miners?" The governor replied: "I understand the sheriff of Christian county has 100 deputies armed with Winchesters, and why does not the sheriff do that duty?" Kitchell replied that the deputies could not be spared from the mine. Governor Tanner said: "I suppose they are guarding the imported negroes from the south. Very well, if the operators care more to protect the mines than their own lives, they could not expect the state to intervene. However, if I become convinced that life or property in the city of Pana is in danger I shall not hesitate to use the army for its protection, but I want It understood that I am opposed to imported convict or any other labor into our state. It must be stopped or the operators cannot depend on the army of the state. That army shall not be used for that purpose while I am governor."
Miners Capture the Mine Owners
The governor received a message from Mayor Towell later stating that the miners had captured the mine owners, and asking that the governor send troops. Instead of replying the governor sent a telegram to Sheriff Colbum, of Christian county, saying: "Have received following message: 'Armed mob controlling the city, have captured operators, and have them in their power; send troops. (Signed) Warren Powell, Mayor.' Please report fully the condition, and advise me if you are able to maintain order and protect life and property."
      In reply the governor received the following: "Send troops at once. I am unable to control situation. Have captured two operators and positively refuse to give them up. (Signed) Ira Colburn."
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GOVERNOR WANTS FACTS
Wants to Know Why the Sheriff Has Not Used Force to Protect Property.
      The governor replied: "Your reply not responsive to my message. Instead of giving situation fully as I requested you to do, you simply say, 'I am unable to control situation, send troops at once.' What I want is facts, so that I may judge for myself the necessity for sending troops. I understand that you have 100 deputies sworn in, armed with Winchester rifles. Have you attempted even to use this force to protect citizens and maintain peace? Or on the contrary, are you not using this force to protect the imported negro miners from Alabama while at work in the mines? If so, do you think it more important that these imported laborers should be protected than the good, bona-fide citizens of the city of Pana and the surrounding country? I repeat that I want facts, not conclusions from which to base my actions."
      David Ross, secretary of the bureau of labor statistics, received a telegram from John Mitchell, national vice president of the United Mine Workers, as to the character of the complaint to be made against the Pana operators. Vice President Mitchell stated that a petition for an injunction had been filed against the operators in the Christian county circuit court at Taylorvllle to restrain them from operating their mines. The petition sets up that the operators are not employing registered fire bosses, and that their air shafts are not being operated in accordance with the law. The hearing on this petition is set for Monday.
      Mr. Ross also received a telegram from G. G. Cravens, president of the Pana Miners' union, stating that the operators had decided to withdraw their negro miners last night. Later he received a dispatch from National Vice President Mitchell saying that everything was under control.
      A conference was held last night between Secretary Ryan, Vice President Mitchell, of the Miners' union, and David Ross and T. D. Kelliher, of the state labor bureau, and later they conferred with Louis Overholtz, who agreed to meet the committee this morning and submit the concern's books; looking toward a settlement. Other operators will meet with the state officials.
      All was quiet last night. Most of the miners from other towns have returned home. "General" Bradley's force from Mount Olive was turned back by President Mitchell. Dr. Millar., the minister who interfered on behalf of the Overholtzs. is badly injured, but will recover. David Overholtz gave a committee of citizens an order on Sheriff Coburn to allow three negro miners to come to town and confer with the strikers, but the sheriff refused, fearing the negroes would be lynched, though the citizens offered to protect them. Secretary Ross, of the state bureau of labor statistics, wired Governor Tanner last night that he feared more demonstrations.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 270
Saturday, September 3, 1898, Page 1
ORDERED TO BE IN READINESS
Battery B May Be Sent to Pana
-- Overholt Breaks His Word.
Springfield, Ills., Sept. 5. -- Governor Tanner has ordered battery B, Illinois National Guard, of Galesburg, to this city, with their two Gatling guns. They will go into camp here and will be ready to proceed to Pana on short notice.
      A State Register special from Pana last night says that all is quiet there and that no trouble is apprehended. The miners are not assembled in force. D. B. Overholt, president of the Springside Mining company, who promised the miners to get the operators to have a conference with the mining officials, yesterday forenoon, when called upon to keep his word, coolly informed the mining officials that he had made no such promise.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 33
Monday, September 5, 1898, Page 1
Pana Awaits Court's Action.
Pana, Ill., Sept. 6. -- The situation regarding the lockout of the Pana union coal miners has no new features. The several operators and their families still remain at the Springside mine under a heavy guard of deputies. Everything now seems waiting the action of Judge Farmer in the injunction case filed in the circuit court, which will not be called until Wednesday. The outcome of the case is awaited with much anxiety on both sides. Apparently no serious action or results will be had until Wednesday.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 271
Monday, September 5, 1898, Page 1
Closes the Mine by Injunction.
Springfield. Ills.. Sept. 3. -- Judge Farmer, at Taylorville. has issued an injunction on complaint of Secretary Ross, of the state labor statistics bureau, on relation of the people of Illinois, closing the Springside mine at Taylorville. The writ has been served on the mine owners. This closes the mine until the case is heard by the court. It is alleged the mine has no fire business and that the escapement shaft is not large enough.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 273
Wednesday, September 7, 1898, Page 3
STRIKE NOTES FROM PANA.
Some Novel Moves being Made Through the Court Down There.
Taylorville. Ills. Sept. 7. -- The Overholt brothers, operators of the Pana mine in which the negroes are working, were here before the grand jury endeavoring to secure indictments against the miners who kidnapped them at Pana last Thursday. The injunction proceedings to stop the mines from operating is set for tomorrow.
      Much feeling has been engendered against both the sheriff and governor in this county. In the office of the Republican sheriff the picture of the governor is now hanging with the face to the wall. Attorney Le Forgee thinks the further importation of negroes can be prevented by law. There is talk of an injunction forbidding the employment of deputy sheriffs at Springside and in the city.
      The city was placed under martial law at 3 o'clock yesterday afternoon. The citizens are indignant, and unless Governor Tanner acts may appeal to the president to send United States marshals to arrest the sheriff and deputies for endeavoring to incite a riot. Emboldened by martial law protection the negroes from Springside camp came into the city yesterday afternoon and boldly paraded the streets.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 274
Thursday, September 8, 1898, Page 1
NOT MARTIAL LAW AT PANA.
But the Mayor Turns Over the Keeping of the Peace to the Sheriff.
Pana, Ills., Sept. 8. -- There is no martial law here, nor anything similar thereto. What has happened is that the mayor has turned over the keeping of the peace of the city to the sheriff, because the city council refused to appoint extra policemen. Mayor Penwell is a son of George V. Penwell, a coal operator. The Overholts aver they have names of men who, they say, in the miners' open air meeting offered motions to put them to death. No such motions were offered after union officials reached the scene, and the miners deny that such motions were ever made. Indictments may be found and Sheriff Coburn's preparations are directed especially to this contingency.
      Springfield, Ills.. Sept. 8. -- A State Register special from Pana sas that city officials, the mayor excepted, and the aldermen and many business men of the city have drawn up a petition to be presented to Governor Tanner, asking him to take action to have the deputies guarding the Springside mine withdrawn, alleging that there is no need for them, and requesting that no troops be sent to Pana. Sheriff Coburn, City Marshal Kilby, Constable Williamson, and others of Pana were before the grand jury at Taylorville yesterday afternoon for the purpose of securing the indictment, it is said, of the miners who participated in the capture of the Messrs. Overholt, operators.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 37
Friday, September 9, 1898, Page 1
MINE OPERATORS IN COURT.
Charged with Conspiracy and Neglect of State Regulations.
Pana, Ill., Sept. 9. -- The several operators who have been under guard of 200 deputies at the Springside Mining Company plant were guarded to the Baltimore and Ohio shops, near the edge of the city, early Thursday morning, where they took passage to Taylorville, to dissent to the two injunction cases brought against them, one being a charge of conspiracy and the other the case of the state enjoining the operators from operating the mine, owing to defective escapement entry. There is no doubt but if the cases are decided against the miners trouble and bloodshed will follow.
      Sheriff's Coburn's rough riders are in control of the city. Deputy hire is proving very expensive to the county, and the taxpayers are claiming it is a steal. It requires fully $800 dally to pay the expenses.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 275
Friday, September 9, 1898, Page 1
MINE TROUBLES AT PANA.
Operators Defending Suits for Conspiracy and Injunction.
Pana, Ills., Sept. 9. -- The several operators who have been under guard of 200 deputies at the Springside Mining company mine were guarded to the Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern shops near the edge of the city yesterday,where they took passage to Tayorville to meet the two cases in the courts brought against them, one being a charge cf conspiracy, and the other a case enjoining the operators from operating a mine having a defective escape entry. This suit is only against the Springside Coal company. The conspiracy case is against all of the operators.
      Mossey West and Thadeus Simpson, two local strike leaders, were arrested by special deputies for loud talking on the streets. Police Magistrate Crosby refused to deliver the keys to the jail to the deputies, so that the strike leaders could be imprisoned; hence the men were released. Sheriff Coburn's rough riders are farmers from Rosemond and Buckeye and number 100 men under charge of Rev. W. H. Rickers, of Rosemond, a Congregational minister.
      City Night Policeman Anderson compelled the rough riders Wednesday night to awaken Chief Deputy Edmonds to prove by what authority they paraded the streets and alleys of the city, under penalty of arrest and imprisonment. Edmonds notified Anderson and the matter was dropped. Rough riders and deputies are subjects of most severe derision of citizens and strikers in general.
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The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
Saturday, September 10,1898, Page 2
UNDER MARTIAL LAW
Serious Condition of Affairs at Pana, Ill.
-- Miners Not Responsible for Situation.
Pana, Ill., Sept. 7. -- The city was placed under martial law Tuesday afternoon, notwithstanding the attitude of the miners is absolutely quieter than at any time since April. Citizens are indignant, and unless Gov. Tanner acts, may appeal to the president to send United States marshals to arrest the sheriff and deputies for endeavoring to incite a riot. Emboldened by martial law protections, ex-convict negroes from Springside camp came into the city Tuesday afternoon and boldly paraded the streets, taking complete charge of the sidewalks and badly, frightening, citizens. The aspect is serious. The miners are conducting themselves very orderly.
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The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
Saturday, September 24,1898, Page 2
PETITION DENIED.
Court Refuses to Grant the Petition of the Striking Miners at Pana, Ill.
Springfield, Ill., Sept. 20. -- In the Christian county circuit court at Taylorville, Judge Dwight handed down his decision in the case of the petition of the Pana coal miners, asking that the operators of the Springside, Penwell and Pana companies' mines be enjoined from operating their mines on the ground of conspiracy to depress wages of complainants; intimidation by force and other unlawful means; boycotting and preventing complainants from obtaining work, and operating their mines without a fire-boss and proper escapement. The court denied the petition on the ground that the conditions alleged in the two last named charges to exist when the petition was filed , have since been remedied and the motion for a temporary injunction was denied, but the bill was retained for such further proceedings as may be proper.
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The True Republican, Sycamore, DeKalb County, Illinois
Saturday, September 28, 1898, Page 2
Will Go Back to Alabama.
Springfield, Ill., Sept. 26. -- One hundred negro miners from Alabama, who came to Virden to work in the Chicago Virden mine, arrived in this city Sunday morning. They state that they will return to Alabama as soon as possible, as they were deceived by the mine operators agent, who brought them to Virden, he having told them that there was no strike there, which they found on arrival to be false.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 53, September 29, 1898, Page 1
BATTLE AT PANA, ILL.
Strikers and Union Men Clash in the Illlnois Town.
Pana, Ill., Sept. 29. -- Striking union coal miners and imported negroes engaged in a pitched battle in the main street of this city last night. Several hundred shots were exchanged. No one was wounded in the ranks of the union men. The negroes were driven from the city to their stockades, carrying with them, it is believed, a number of wounded comrades. One of the negroes is reported to have died soon after reaching the stockade. Desultory firing continued at midnight in the vicinity of the stockades.
      The union miners say the battle is only a foretaste of what may be expected to follow. They blame Operator Penwell for the trouble and say they will swear out warrants charging him with inciting the riot.
      Gov. Tanner will be asked to send the militia to protect property interests and to remove the negroes.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 54
Friday, September 30, 1898, Page 1
TROOPS SENT TO PANA, ILL.
Soldiers Ordered to Put Down Rioting
SHERIFF IS POWERLESS
Striking Coal Miners Are in Possession of the Town
-- Two Hundred Ready to Meet Anticipated Assault by the Imported Negroes.
Springfield, Ill., Sept. 30. -- In response to an urgent appeal from Sheriff Colburn of Pana, Gov. Tanner has ordered troops to tbe coal mines at that point to protect life and property.
      Sheriff Colburn notified the governor yesterday afternoon that he was powerless to control the striking miners. In conversation by telephone the sheriff said he feared an outbreak, which, would lead to rioting and bloodshed. The officer asked that state troops be sent at once to the town, as he had exhausted his resources and the situationwas critical.
      Gov. Tanner was impressed by the earnestness of the request and Capt. Craig of battery B of Galesburg was ordered to go with his men to Pana at once. Col. John B. Hamilton of Elgin was also ordered to report with two of the best equipped companies of his Sons of Veterans for riot duty. Col Hamilton will designate the companies.
      The orders to Capt. Craig are to camp within the city limits and to protect the life and property of the citizens. Under no circumstances are the soldiers to aid the operators or mine owners in the operating of the mines.
UNION MEN HOLD THE TOWN
Saloons at Pana Closed by Order of the Mayor
Pana, Ill., Sept. 30. -- Mine Operators Julius Broehl, D. J. Overholt and George Penwell left the city Thursday for Chicago. Editor W. S. Childress, who has been antagonistic to the miners, has also left the city.
      At 7 o'clock in the evening, by order of Mayor Penwell, all the saloons were closed and orders given for them to remain closed until Saturday morning. Operator Penwell's department store was closed at 7 o'clock, as were also all the leading business houses. Early in the evening union miners, armed with rifles and shotguns, congregated in the streets, in alleys and on tops of business buildings, it having been reported that the negro miners were coming to the town. The unionists were in full possession of the city, but the negroes kept within the stockades.
Trouble Expected at Sorrento.
Greenville, Ill., Sept. 30. -- The miners of the one coal mine at Sorrento, Bond county, have been on strike since last April, and the operators of the mine have been unable to adjust matters. D. H. Williams, Jr., the principal operator, has decided to employ nonunion men, and resume work without the aid of strikers, and to this end has completed the necessary buildings at the mines. The non-union miners are not, it is said, imported laborers, but residents of Illinois. The union miners are determined that they shall not work, and Sheriff John McAllister received a telegram from Sorrento informing him that the strikers were parading the streets in a threatening manner. He left at once for that place.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume XLVI, Number 203
Friday, September 30, 1898, Page 1
SITUATION GROWS GRAVE
Conflict Between Armed Miners and Sheriff's Posse Imminent
Pana. Ill., Sept. 30. -- Deputy sheriffs were successful in keeping the negro miners within the stockades last night. Many shots were fired in the vicinity of the mines during the night, but with what results could not be ascertained. Battery C, of Galesburg, and two companies of Hamilton's Sons of Veterans are expected to arrive at noon to protect the projerty of citiznes. Visiting miners, heavily armed, have been arriving all the morning, while 200 local miners just left the city for Shelby county, three miles east of the city, to intercept the Baltimore & Ohio train, said to be convying 60 negro miners to Pana to take the union men's places in the Pana mine. Their purpose is to stop the train unloading the negroes at the point of guns and march them east. The sheriff will dispatch a posse to the county line to prevent a holdup within Christian county.
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October
The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 55
Saturday, October 1, 1898, Page 1
STRIKERS HOLD UP TRAIN
Pana Miners Intercept Negroes and Send Them Back.
NONE OF THEM WAS INJURED
Seventy Masked Men Do the Work
-- Troops Now Stationed at Pana
-- Ratchford Denies There Is a Probability of a General Strike In the District.
Pana, Ill., Oct. 1. -- The climax in the strike situation has been reached. A train has been held up and raided by an armed body of strikers. About 10 o'clock Friday morning 160 strikers,armed with rifles, shotguns, and revolvers, left Pana on foot for Tower Hill, where It was their intention to intercept the negroes who were enroute here from Washington, Ind., to work In the mines.
      At noon the strikers were encamped two miles east of the city, where they laid In wait for the special transporting the negroes. When near the Shelby, Christian county, line, at about 2:30 p. m., the train was flagged and held up by the strikers. The engine was cut loose and the crew ordered to run it west a distance away from the two coaches carrying the negroes. The armed strikers then compelled all the negroes to leave the train, and are now drilling them back to Tower Hill, where it is supposed they will attempt to place them on a return train to Indiana. There were thirty-six negroes, men, women, and children, on the train. The penalty for holding up train is heavy. The Baltimore and Ohio is in the hands of a receiver, which adds to the seriousness of the crime.
      Battery B, with two gatling guns and sixty men, Capt. Craig in command, arrived in Pana at 3 o'clock Friday afternoon from Springfield and was immediately stationed in camp on the W. E. Hayward land on North Poplar street. Companies G and B of Elgin and Aurora, 125 men, arrived at 9 o'clock. The troops will be under the direct supervision of Sheriff Coburn and will act at all times under his orders. Their orders are to disarm all citizens and to patrol the city at all hours.
      At the solicitation of strikers a great number of women and children living in houses convenient to Camp Penwell have moved to other portions of the city because the strikers claim the lives of the women and children are in danger from the negroes. At the same time. It is said, the strikers were storing arms in one of the miner's houses in the near neighborhood.
      With the advent of the troops all deputies are withdrawn. The saloons are now closed. Mayor Penwell issuing the orders.
NO GENERAL STRIKE
Ratchford Says Only Local Troubles Can Happen Before Spring.
Indianapolis, Ind., Oct. 1. -- M. D. Ratchford, president of the Mine-Workers' union, says the report of an impending general strike among the miners is untrue. "There will be no general strike," said Mr. Ratchford,"during the life of the Chicago contract, which lasts until next May. What will happen in the future no one can tell. There will be no trouble anywhere as long as the operators live up to the contract, and the organizations will protect them. There will be local strikes wherever the operators violate that agreement, but as far as this office is advised there is nothing of that kind in prospect now."
Sorento Trouble Settled.
Greenville, Ill., Oct. 1. -- Sheriff McAllister, after reaching Sorento Thursday night, found 300 or 400 armed miners awaiting the arrival of the imported negroes. He wired Deputy Sheriff Wright to send 100 deputies, and sixty were hastily sworn in and sent on the morning train. Friday afternoon at 3 o'clock an agreement was reached between the committee and Mine Manager Williams whereby the men are to receive the scale they demanded and which they were receiving prior to April. The miners will resume work at once. The sheriff received word from the governor that 200 rifles and ammunition would be forwarded for his deputies.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume XLVI, Number 294
Saturday, October 1, 1898, Page 1
STRIKERS RUN THINGS
Down Pana Way They Carry Out the Governor's Wishes With Promptness and Dispatch.
IMPORTED LABOR IS KEPT OUT
By Holding Up a Train Load and Sending the Men Back Into Indiana at the Muzzles of Guns
-- Sheriff at Tower Hill Considers the Action Lawful and Doesn't Interfere
-- Story Told By the Train Engineer -- State Troops Are Now at Pana and on Guard.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 1. -- Governor Tanner conversed with Sheriff Coburn over the telephone last night and instructed the sheriff to withdraw his deputies at the mines there and turn the command over to Capin Craig, who has now declared martial law in Pana.
      Tower Hill. Ills., Oct. 1. -- Two hundred Pana union miners, with 100 outside miners, held up a special Baltimore and Ohio Southwestern train two miles west of this place yesterday afternoon, which was conveying fifty Washington. Ind., miners to Pana to take the place of union miners, compelled the negroes to embark and walk back to Tower Hill in advance of them, and had the blacks in charge locked in the B. & O. S. W. depot. All the negroes were taken back to Washington last night, via the B. and 0. S. W., at the expense of the miners' union, four of the union miners accompanying them. The blacks where held captives here until last night at 10 o'clock. They were in charge of determined men, heavily armed, and on being placed in the depot sentinels and pickets were stationed at various points, while the miners surrounded the depot and remained on duty until the negroes were safely loaded on the train for home.
Hold-Up Was Perfectly Executed.
The hold-up of the train was perfected executed. Engineer George Worsham of Pana, was in charge of the train, and on being flagged brought the train to a stop. The miners were all masked, and Worsham stated that he could not identify any of them. The engine was uncoupled from the coaches and run a short distance away, the enginemen being kept under guard of guns. Masked men then entered the front doors of the train, while their associates surrounded the coaches. The negroes were then marched out of the doors, and walked down the track to Tower Hill.
One Sheriff Refuses to Act
News of the capture of the blacks having reached Sheriff Coburn at Pana he sent an armed posse of deputies, including negroes from Springside camp, towards this town to intercept the miners on their return. Sheriff P. C. Courtright, of this county, was communicated with Sheriff Coburn to release the negroes and arrest the men who effected their capture Hence the scene of interest was transferred to this town. Sheriff Courtright is here, but he does not believe the conditions justify him in taking any hand in the matter. He says the negroes are anxious to return home, and as the whites who are with them are carrying their arms in full view, and in his judgment violating no law, he refuses to comply with the request of the sheriff of Christian county.
READY TO DITCH THE TRAIN
Which Was Why the Engineer Voluntarily Obeyed the Mob.
Great excitement reigns here for fear of the arrival of the blacks and deputies from Pana, In case which a battle would surely follow. When ordered to Flora yesterday morning to haul the negroes to Pana, Engineer Worsham, a strong union man, at first refused, but was compelled to make the trip on the penalty of discharge. He claims that he voluntarily stopped the train for the mob, but says it was do so or have the train ditched, for obstructions were ready to be thrown in front of his engine. He says that all the time the train was delayed he was following the directions of the mob with fully 100 guns pointed at his head. After the negroes were unloaded he was directed at the point of a guns to couple up and run slowly to Pana.
      Pana. Ills., Oct. 1. Battery B. of Galesburg, numbering sixty-eight men, arrived in Pana on a special B. and O. train from Springfield at 2:30 p. m. yesterday. On a flat car In front of the train was a full manned battery of two Gatling guns. The battery men were armed with side arms and Springfield rifles. Immediately after arriving the battery unloaded and went into camp at the old ball park on North Poplar street. The two camps of Sons of Veterans from Aurora and Elgin arrived from Springfield last evening, where they were equipped with guns and mustered in as state national guards.
      Governor Tanner's instructions to the troops before their departure from Springfield were in minute form these: Arrest all persons carrying arms, and hold such arms until further orders, protect citizens, their property, and maintain order, but lend no assist to operators in operating their mine with imported labor. The governor said "This habit of importing negro into our state to take the place of our citizens has to stop, if I have power to abate it."
      The militia is in full charge of the city and parading the business streets.
No General Strike of Miners
Indianapolis, Oct. 1. -- M. D. Ratchford, president of the Mine Workers' union, says that the report of an impending general strike among the miners is untrue. "There will be no general strike." said Ratchford. "during the life of the Chicago contract, which lasts until next May. What will happen in the future no one can tell."
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 56
Monday, October 3, 1898, Page 1
NEGRO MINERS DRIVEN OUT
Attacked by White Men at Washington, Ind.
POLICE WERE POWERLESS
One Hundred and Fifty Strikers from Pana, Ill., Acting with Home Miners Compel the Negroes to Leave the Town
-- One Man Reported Killed.
      Washington, Ind., Oct. 3. -- One hundred and fifty coal miners from Pana, Ill., came here Sunday afternoon, assembled at the fair grounds with the home union miners and organized. At 10 o'clock they got together, all masked, and visited the shacks where the colored miners lived, and about fifty of the negroes were corralled and at the point of pistols run out of town.
      One negro refused to go and the miners fired on him. He has not been found and may have been killed.
      The police could do nothing. One officer, Anderson Cannon, faced the whole mob and demanded that it disperse. The men answered by pointing pistols at him and threatening to shoot.
      The masked miners took the town. Chief of Police Call turned in the fire alarm and called out the citizens to assist in keeping peace. Several were sworn in as deputies and if there is a new outbreak of trouble much bloodshed will likely be the result.
      Late at night the streets were crowded. The masked men had hidden themselves, possibly to make an attack on other negroes. There are possibly fifty negroes who declare they will die before they leave town.
Quiet at Pana, Ill.
Pana, Ill., Oct 3. -- At Camp Craig Sunday, where tbe state troops are quartered, services were conducted and in the afternoon an exhibition drill was given by the soldiers, witnessed by fully 1,000 citizens. The provost guard is still on duty patrolling the streets. The miners' organization, it is said, received a consignment of 200 guns and 100 revolvers Saturday night. The consignment of firearms was unloaded at the village of Rosemond, four miles west of Pana, and from there conveyed overland in wagons to Pana.
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Battle of Virden
October 12, 1898
Coal Miners Riot
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Vol XLVI. No. 303
Wednesday, October 12, 1898, Page 1
WAR IS RAGING AT VIRDEN,
The Arrival of Negro Miners Precipitates a Bloody Struggle
A GREAT NUMBER KILLED ALREADY.
Final Appeal to Gov. Tanner for Troops Has Been Made -- Fight Still On.
Virden, Ill., Oct. 12. -- The arrival of the negroes from the south this afternoon was followed by a desperate battle. five Hundred shots on one side and Sheriff Davenport and his deputies and railroad police on the other. It is thought at least twenty men on both sides were killed and wounded. The best information is that 10 are killed, 5 fatally wounded and 5 seriously. A Chicago & Alton policeman named D. Kiley is among the killed.
      When the train arrived bearing the negroes fully 1,500 armed miners were lined up on each side of the track. The train stopped in front of the gates of the stockade and the trouble began. Dozens of shots were fired from the stockade at the white men while the strikers were half a mile away.
      The wildest rumors are afloat, one tot he effect that 50 miners were killed. The greatest excitement prevails and men are securing whatever arms they can to defend themselves if the trouble spreads. Women and children are fleeing to their houses, and barricading the doors. It is reported the miners were fired on from the stockade after the train went through.
      Mayor Nall has sent to Girard and Springfield for doctors and nurses. Manager Lukens was fired upon by the strikers when trying to escape from the shaft.
      Sheriff Davenport thinks that possibly 100 are killed and wounded. Others think the estimate too large.
Sheriff's Final Appeal.
Sheriff Davenport made what he said was a final appeal to the governor for troops at Virden. He wired that 2,000 strikers were parading and the situation was beyond his control. The governor replied that no troops would be sent to assist the mine owners or miners. Troops would only be sent when necessary to prevent riot or bloodshed.
Tanner Sends Troops
The governor has just received a telephone message from Sheriff Davenport, at Virden, that the fight is still going on and over 100 are killed. The governor ordered battery B and the sons of Veterans companies at Pana to proceed at once to Virden. He also ordered Col. Hamilton commanding the Sons of Veterans, to rendezvous four companies at once at Springfield.
Every Deputy Killed.
St. Louis, Oct. 12. -- A Carlinville (Ill.) special says it is reported that every deputy in the stockade at Virden is killed.
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NEWS RECEIVED AT THE CAPITAL.
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President of the Mineworkers of Illinois Informed of the Fight.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 12. -- Telegrams to State President Hunter, of the mine workers of Illinois, says a battle was fought today between the striking miners at Virden and the negroes imported from Alabama. He is advised that the guards on the train bearing the negroes fired repeatedly into the crowd of miners on the platform of the depot as the train reached the station, killing 10. The governor will probably order Battery B from Pana, as it is reported there is yet to be an effort to get negroes into the stockade, and the miners say they will fight to the bitter end.
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AT PANA AND VIRDEN
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Mayor Penwell Discharges the First Police Force and Appoints a New One.
      Pana, Ills., Oct. 12. -- Warren Penwell, mayor, believing that the city police were in sympathy with the striking miners, discharged the entire force yesterday afternoon and replaced them [with] new men who were in sympathy with the coal operators. The bonds of the new police were filed by the operators and men favoring their side of the issue.. The first fruits of the change was a fight which had only been delayed from time to time by the fact that one of the participants, A. C. Burton, had been on the deputy force and thus escaped. Upon his dismissal from the deputy force he was immediately sworn in on the police force.
First Result Is a Fight.
      While he was passing the corner of Locust and Second streets a miner named Jack Boyle, ex-president of the union miners, said something to the new officer, whereupon Burton undertook to arrest Boyle, and an encounter ensued. Soldiers who were patrolling that section of the city put both men under arrest and started them to the guard house, but both were released upon giving bond for appearance Oct. 13. Eight of ten members of the city council stated last night that they would discharge the new officers and reinstate the old ones at next meeting of the city council.
Company Fortified at Virden.
      Chicago. Oct. 12. The Virden correspondent of The Evening Journal telegraphs: The situation of the coal miners' wage war at this place is more critical than at any time since April 1, and the aspect of affairs sinister in the extreme. On the one hand the Chicago-Virden Coal company has surrounded its shaft house and twenty acres of land, on which have been concentrated some fifty company houses for barracks with a stockade of planks eight feet high. Within this stockade the company has a body of men for guards, 200 Springfield rifles and ten cases of riot guns, which carry No. 12 cartridges, full of buckshot. Fred W. Lukins, general manager of the company, remains in personal command of his forces almost night and day, and declares he will defend his property from attack to the last ditch. He is a youngish man with a muscular physique and a countenance of vigorous determination.
Miners In Camp Outside.
      On the outside of the stockade there is as warlike preparation and plan of interfering tactics which is carefully carried out in all details. There are four camps along the railroad tracks, and a regular patrol of the railroad yards is kept up. The strikers have very little shelter, only a sentry box here and there, but they built fires of logs and they have a kitchen north of the stockade where great boilers of coffee are made during the night for the men on duty. They have also an arsenal where their weapons are stored which are not in actual use. I counted nearly 100 Winchesters and shotguns stacked along the fence of the roadside.
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Vol. 4 No. 65
October 13, 1898, Pages 1 & 4
BATTLE AT VIRDEN, ILL.
Eleven Men Killed and More Than Thirty Wounded.
MILITIA NOW IN POSSESSION
Effort of the Coat Mine 0perators
Bring Negro Laborers from the South
C the Cause of the Trouble Gov. Tanner Orders Troops to the Scene
Virden, Ill., Oct. 13. -- After a bloody battle in which eleven were killed and thirty-four wounded, striking miners, detectives, guards, sheriff and deputies are resting. Business is entirely suspended. Men with their families are at home, with windows and doors barricaded, trembling in fear that the riots will begin again.
      In the battle Wednesday afternoon 700 striking miners were engaged, and a posse of fifty Pinkerton and Thiele detectives who were guarding a train bringing in negro miners and thirty-two ex-Chicago policemen who were in the stockade. Aside from these, Sheriff Davenport has a force of twenty deputies.
      Troops have been sent here by Gov. Tanner to protect life and property and he has asked the federal authorities to allow him to use Col. Culver's regiment. He still insists the soldiers shall not aid the coal-mine operators in their purpose of working imported negro miners, and he declares the operators ought to be convicted for causing the bloodshed here. Mr. Lukens is quite as vehement in his denunciation of the governor for his failure to send troops here sooner.
      The tragedy is the result of a determined effort on the part of the Chicago-Virden Coal Company to employ negro miners brought from Alabama to take the places of miners here on a strike. The strikers were equally determined and both sides sought to win by force of arms.
      The killed are:
D. N. KILEY, Chicago & Alton detective.
JOE GUILTEY, Mount Olive.
ELLIS SMITH, Mount Olive.
ED WALSH, Springfield.
EARNEST CAMERON, Mount Olive.
BERT SMITH, Mount Olive.
DAN BRENNEMAN, Girard.
W. W. CARROLL, deputy sheriff.
A. W. MORGAN, stockade guard, Chicago.
W. CLARKSON, detective, Chicago.
THOMAS PRESTON. stockade guard, Chicago.

      Names of the wounded follow:
Ansk Ankel, Mount Olive.
Gustav Werslep, Mount Olive.
Ed Upton, Springfield.
Thomas Jennings, Springfield
Joe Haines, Girard; shot in the leg.
Joe Runk, Girard; shot in arm.
George Runk, Girard; shot in stomach.
William Herman, Girard; shot in hand.
Joe Baston, Mount Olive; shot in stomach.
Joe Sprim, Mount Olive; shot in arm.
Bart Kygar, engineer Chicago & Alton; shot In arm.
J. F. Eyster, superintendent Climax Trading Company; shot and beaten.
H. Gritgesell, wounded In shoulder.
O. J. Snyder, shot In face and legs.
James Sickles, Chicago; shot In leg.
Frank Wilder, Chicago; shot in arm.
Thomas McEntee, Chicago; shot in leg.
J. W. Moonan, St. Louis; slightly injured.
P. J. Hanan, slightly injured.
J. H. Smith, Chicago; slightly injured.

      Fourteen wounded men were taken to the hospitals at Springfield. The following are in the Springfield city hospital:
William H. Clarkson, an inmate of the old soldiers' home at Leavenworth, Kas., deputy; skull crushed; will die.
William A. Kygar of Bloomington, engineer on train; shot through the arm.
Willam Masser of St. Louis, deputy; shot through the head, shoulder and hands; will probably recover.
James Palmer, deputy; shot in the left side of face, arm and side; will recover.
Patrick Mack of Virden, employed by the operators of the Chicago-Virden shaft; bullet went through his thigh; will recover.
Ernest Ryan, a colored miner from Alabama; bullet went through his head; will recover.

      The following are in St. John's hospital at Springfield:
Albert Smith, Mount Olive.
Gustave Werseip, Mount Olive.
Edward Upton, Springfield.
Thomas Jennings, Springfield.
Joe Haines, Girard.
Joe Runk, Girard.
William Herman. Girard.
Joseph Baston. Mount Olive.
Joseph Long, Mount Olive.

      Of the eleven dead, six are miners, one a Chicago & Alton detective, one a stockade guard -- Al Morgan of Chicago -- and two detectives, W. W. Carroll and W. W. Clarkson. The wounded include eight strikers, six Pinkerton and Thiele men and seven guards at the stockade.
      Thomas Stockton, formerly a lieutenant of police in Chicago, was killed by the militia. He was on guard at the stockade and failed to respond to an order to halt.
      At midnight the miners were guarding the stockade and the Chicago & Alton tracks, apprehensive that an attempt would be made under cover of darkness to run the special back from Springfield and unload the negroes in the stockade. That such an attempt would result in the renewal of the afternoon's fighting is a certainty. It was not believed that the coal company would make any attempt to run the negroes in until the state troops arrive, and it is doubtful if they do then. The consensus of opinion is that the miners have won a victory, although it was done with blood, and that the Chicago-Virden coal company will abandon its attempt to put southern negroes in the mines. If it does the leaders of the miners assert that Pana operators, too, will abandon their attempt, and the result will be the life of the miner's union, which the Illinois operators, by concerted action, have tried to stamp out.
      The miners, shortly before noon Wednesday, received word that the special train bearing the negroes was at Shipman, which is about an hour's run from Virden. About 12:10 the train arrived in Virden. The train consisted of a box car, three coaches and a caboose. The train did not make any attempt to stop at the depot, but ran up to the stockade of the Chicago-Virden coal company, which lies along the right-of-way of the Chicago & Alton road about six blocks further north. Just as the train reached the southern limits of the city a miner stationed there fired a gun in the air, which was the signal arranged by the miners to announce the arrival of the train bearing the negroes. No more shots were fired until the train passed the depot, when quite a number of shots were fired, and it is claimed by the miners that the shooting was commenced by the guards on the train.
      When the train reached the stockade it stopped, and then came the battle. About fifteen white men got off the train and ran into the stockade. The men on the train kept up a steady fire, which was answered by the miners. By far the heaviest firing came from the tower of the coal mine inside the stockade. Some of the balls from the tower went through inch planks on the other side of the town. D. N. Kiley, a Chicago & Alton policeman, who was brought down from Chicago, was standing near the north end of the depot platform, five and one-half blocks away, and was shot through the head by one of the guards in the tower.
      At the east side of the stockade where the train stopped the scene was awful. The miners who were making their demonstrations were to the south of the stockade, but over in the field east of the Chicago & Alton tracks was a crowd of miners. The guards in the tower and on the train commenced picking them off, and here is where the miners lost all their men who were killed.
      The train met a furious volley of bullets from over a thousand men, every shot intending to kill. The volleys were kept up for fully ten minutes, until the uselessness of remaining became apparent to the trainmen, and the train was sped on to Springfield.
      The men inside the stockade telephoned for physicians, and J. F. Eyster, the manager of the coal company store, drove up to the stockade with two physicians. As he was leaving the shaft he was seen by a number of miners, and a frenzied crowd of several hundred miners followed him uptown. He ran into the store to escape the crowd, and they riddled the store with bullets. Eyster, who is a young man, got out on top of the store and ran along the tops of several store buildings. Several hundred shots were fired at him. He came down through one building and was shot through the head when he reached the walk. He fell, and a few minutes later was carried out in the square, where two men, both of whom were foreigners and were recognized, jumped on him and kicked him in a horrible manner. He was later picked up and taken by friends, but it is not thought he can recover.
      When the scene of battle was transferred from the shaft to the store of the company, which is in the center of the business portion of the town, the post office, which is next to the company store, and all other business houses in that immediate vicinity were at once closed, and a reign of terror prevailed in the entire community. Miss Ada Beatty, a young lady who clerks in the company store, had a very narrow escape. She was in the store during the entire fusillade. The attack on Mr. Eyster meets with the condemnation of the miners generally.
      The wounded men were cared for as well as the circumstances would permit, as the mine operators had secured every surgeon in the city, and all were within the stockade but one. The supervisor secured the services of surgeons from Girard and Carlinville. The dead and wounded were sent to their homes.
      Orders of the governor to the troops which have arrived are to protect life and property, but under no condition to assist the Chicago-Virden Coal company to land negroes within the stockade. These are the orders communicated to Mayor Noll by the governor.
FIND REFUGE IN SPRINGFIELD
Negro Miners Brought to the Capital After the battle at Virden.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 13. -- The arrival in Springfield of the bullet-riddled train bearing the negro miners who were repulsed by the strikers at Virden caused a great sensation. The train brought seven injured men -- six whites, deputies and one negro miner. The cars were riddled with bullets and twenty window panes were broken, twenty-seven bullets had hit the engine cab and one had taken effect in the arm of Engineer Bert Kygar. Two of the deputies, named Carroll and Clarkson, were fatally injured and died shortly after arriving here. There were seven wounded men on the train, and all were taken to the Springfield hospital.
      There were probably. 160 negroes on the train when it arrived at Springfield, of whom about twenty were women and children. They were thoroughly frightened. About fifty deputies were on the train. The negroes declared they did not understand the situation or they would never have come to Virden.
Troops Ordered to Virden.
Springfield, Oct. 13. -- Battery B of Galesburg, five companies of infantry, and three troops of cavalry have been ordered to Virden. Soon after the outbreak at Virden Gov. Tanner received word of the trouble and immediately directed the adjutant general to send these militiamen to the scene of the riot. The Galesburg battery and one company of the militiamen passed through this city early in the evening on the way to Virden. Adjt. Gen. Reese boarded the train at this point and has gone to Virden to assume charge of the troops. He is working under the following brief Instructions from Gov. Tanner: "Protect life and property and disarm everybody."
Tanner Asks for the Fifth.
Springfield, Ill., Oct. 13. -- Gov. Tanner has reported the conditions existing at Virden to the war department, and asked that the Fifth Illinois regiment, now in camp here awaiting its discharge from the United States service, be placed at his disposal. Col. Culver has tendered his services and those of his men to the governor if needed.
Order Has Been Restored.
Virden, Oct. 15 . -- State troops are now in possession of the town. The governor's instruction to disarm has been carried out as far as possible, and order has been restored.
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The Macomb Journal, Macomb, McDonough County, Illinois
Vol. 46 No. 5
Thursday, October 13, 1898, Page 1
NOT THE UNEXPECTED
Was It That Happened at Virden, Ills., Yesterday, but the Long-Expected
PROBABLY A SCORE OF DEATHS
Will Result from the Battle Between the Striking Miners and Officers.
Negroes from Alabama Attacked on the Train That Took Them to the Chicago-Virden Stockade and a Deadly Fusillade Follows
-- Six of the Strikers Killed and Eighteen Wounded
-- A Number of Casualties on the Train
-- Loss In the Stockade Unknown.
Chicago, Oct. 13. -- The latest dispatches in hand at this writing regarding the terrible riot and bloodshed at Virden, Ills., are as follows:
      St. Louis, Oct. 13. -- A special to The Post-Dispatch from Virden, Ills., says: Nine men on the train were killed and thirteen wounded; ten miners killed and sixteen wounded. The train pulled for the north and the cars were shot full of holes. A reporter for a Chicago paper was killed at the Chicago and Alton station by a stray bullet. J. F. Eyster, manager of the company store, was shot and trampled on by the miners. He cannot live. The miners are looking for Lukins, manager of shaft, who has hidden. It is impossible to find out how many were killed in the stockade.
      Springfield, Ills., Oct. 13. -- Names of those injured, brought into Springfield on the train, are: William Clarkson, St. Louis, five shots in head, will surely die; -- Carroll, Chicago, shot in head and body, dying; James Palmer, soldier, just mustered out of Third Nebraska regiment, shot in arm and body, will recover; William Masser, St. Louis, shot in head, slightly wounded, says he will return to Virden if necessary. Two negroes, names unknown, slightly injured.
      St. Louis, Oct. 13. -- A special to The Post-Dispatch from Virden, Ills., says that six miners were killed and eight wounded during the riot here. The first man killed is supposed to have been shot from the tower. A Chicago detective was killed.
SEVEN DEAD, EIGHTEEN WOUNDED
Is the List So Far Reported Where the Fight Took Place.
      Virden, Ills., Oct. 13. -- The little town of Virden is comparatively quiet now, after a day of riot and bloodshed -- the long expected clash between the union miners and imported negroes. At 12:40 p. m. yesterday a Chicago and Alton special train bearing 200 negro miners from the south arrived at the stockade around the Chicago-Virden Coal company's mines, and immediately a terrific fire began from the union miners. The casualty list at this writing stands seven dead and eighteen wounded. Dead -- Ed Welsh and Frank Bilyou, Springfield; Albert Smith, Joe Kitterly and Ernest Keutner, Mount Olive; A. H. Breneman, Girard, and D. H. Kiley, Chicago and Alton detective.
      Wounded-- Ansk Ankel and Gustav Wevsiep, Mount Olive; Ed Upton and Thomas Jennings, Springfield; Joe Haines, shot in the leg; Joe Runk, shot in arm; George Runk, shot in stomach; William Herman, shot in hand -- all of Girard; Joe Baston, Shot instomach;Joe Sprim, shot In arm -- both of MountOlive; Bart Tigar, engineer of the Chicago and Alton train, shot In arm; J. F. Eyster, superintendent of the Climax Trading company, shot and beaten.
      It is said that six men were wounded inside the stockade, but this has not been verified, and those inside the stockade refuse to communicate with outsiders.
      The militia arrived here at 1:50 p. m. and killed ex-Lieutenant of Police Tom Preston, of Chicago, at the stockade. He was sitting outside the stockade as a guard. The militia gave the bystanding miners the command to halt, and Preston stepped back to the gate. The militia fired and he was shot in the stomach. He was carried into the office in the stockade, where he expired.
GOV. TANNER GIVES HIS VIEWS
Charges the Trouble Entirely to the Mine Operators at Virden.
      Springfield, Ills., Oct. 13. -- In an interview with Governor Tanner last evening regarding the Virden riot he said: "Mr. T. C. Louck, president, and Mr. Lukins, superintendent of the Virden Coal company at 12:30 today made good their threats to land a train load of imported laborers from the south, and attempted to put them to work in their mines at the point of the bayonet and the muzzle of the Winchester, such laborers being drawn largely, if not entirely, from the criminal class -- ex-convicts -- who learned their trade while doing terms In the penitentiaries of Alabama. After having been fully advised and having full knowledge that the landing of such imported laborers would precipitate a riot had wired them that if they brought these imported laborers they did so at their own peril, and under the circumstances would be morally responsible and criminally liable for anything that might happen."
      "As to what happened after the stopping of the train in front of the coal shed any information is based on telegraphic and telephone communications and rumors from those coming from the scene of the conflict. From the information I can gather at this time, the very minute the train stopped in front of the coal shaft where the doors of the stockade were thrown open for imported laborers to enter, the firing began, as to who fired the first shot I am at this time unable to determine, but all reports agree that a general battle was precipitated within just a few moments and the firing became general from the guards on the train called deputies, estimated at fifty or sixty, and was responded to by the idle miners lying on either side of the track."
      "The battle lasted several minutes, after which time the train pulled out. The reports vary as to the number killed and wounded. For instance, the sheriff telegraphed that 100 were killed and the battle still on. However, from conservative estimates from all information I can gather I would estimate the number of killed somewhere from nine to fifteen, and possibly quite as many wounded. The killed and wounded are largely idle miners. The others were the hired guards who were brought along by the coal company. Most, if not all, of them were non-residents of Illinois. There is no means of learning their names or whereabouts for the reason that they declined to give them out, knowing perhaps that they are criminally liable for murder, as they brought no permission from any officers in Illinois authorized to deputize them to act as deputy marshals or deputy sheriff.
TROOPS ORDERED TO THE SCENE.
Part of the Soldiers at Pana Sent to Take Charge of Things.
      "Instantly on learning of the trouble I directed Adjutant General Reece to order Captain Craig, of the Galesburg battery, and one company of the Sons of Veterans' regiment, now stationed at Pana, to proceed at once by the quickest route to the scene of trouble. I learned later that Captain Craig met with serious difficulties in securing a train with coaches to bring his command, and I directed the adjutant general to advise him to load his troops upon the freight cars and come at once to Springfield by the Baltimore and Ohio and secure a train on the Alton to carry the command to Virden. These arrangements were made, and Captain Craig is on the way with his troops and will arrive here at half past 6 or 7 o'clock, and at Virden by 7:30 [p. m. yesterday]. General Reece will accompany Captain Craig."
      "I have instructed General Reece to select a camping ground, most suitable for the occasion, to quell the riot and maintain order, protect life and property, disarm all persons bearing arms, making an inventory of such arms and taking the name of the individual owner, his post office address, such arm to be held until further orders; and to not allow imported laborers to unload from any train within the limits of the city nor to march in a body. These avaricious mine owners have so far forgotten their duty to society as to bring about this blot upon the fair name of our state, have gone far enough -- yes, too far -- as they had fair warning from me, by wire and telephone, that the importation of labor which brings to our state such an undesirable class of citizens had to stop."
      "And I say now to such and all others that this is a thing of the past; that it shall not be tolerated in Illinois while I am governor. These men -- the president and officers of this company -- who precipitated the riot by the bringing in of this imported labor, are guilty of murder, and should be -- and I believe will be -- indicted by the grand jury of Macoupin county and tried and convicted for this heineous offense."
Tanner Asks for United States Troops.
      Springfield, Ills., Oct. 13. -- Governor Tanner said to the Associated Press representative at 10 o'clock last night that he had no word of further trouble at Virden, and that he was confident that there would be no more rioting. "I have asked the secretary of war to place at my command the Fifth Illinois volunteers now at Springfield," he said, "and have ordered four companies of the Sons of Veterans regiment to leave for Virden early in the morning. I intend to have enough troops on the scene to disarm the men who have caused bloodshed; and furthermore I intend to take such action as will prevent any further attempt to import labor into this state."
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Vol XLVI. No. 303
Wednesday, October 13, 1898, Page 1
NOT THE UNEXPECTED
Was It That Happened at Virden, Ills., Yesterday, but the Long-Expected
PROBABLY A SCORE OF DEATHS
Will Result from the Battle Between the Striking Miners and Officers.
Negroes from Alabama Attacked on the Train That Took Them to the Chicago-Virden Stockade and a Deadly Fusillade Follows
-- Eight Strikers Killed and Twenty Wounded
-- A Number of Casualties on the Train
-- Loss In the Stockade Unknown.
-- Comment of Gov. Tanner and Supt. Lukins on the Tragedy
      Virden, Ills., Oct. 13. -- The little town of Virden is comparatively quiet now, after a day of riot and bloodshed -- the long expected clash between the union miners and imported negroes. At 12:40 p. m. yesterday a Chicago and Alton special train bearing 200 negro miners from the south arrived at the stockade around the Chicago-Virden Coal company's mines, and immediately a terrific fire began from the union miners. The casualty list at this writing stands seven dead and eighteen wounded. Dead -- Ed Welsh and Frank Bilyou, Springfield; Albert Smith, Joe Kitterly and Ernest Keutner, Mount Olive; A. H. Breneman, Girard, and D. H. Kiley, Chicago and Alton detective; Ed Green, Mount Olive.
Full List of the Wounded
      Wounded-- Ansk Ankel and Gustav Wevsiep, Mount Olive; Ed Upton and Thomas Jennings, Springfield; Joe Haines, shot in the leg; Joe Runk, shot in arm; George Runk, shot in stomach; William Herman, shot in hand -- all of Girard; Joe Baston, shot in stomach;Joe Sprim, shot in arm -- both of Mount Olive; Bart Tigar, engineer of the Chicago and Alton train, shot In arm; J. F. Eyster, superintendent of the Climax Trading company, shot and beaten; John Sinngan. Mount Olive, shot in foot; Russell Warren, Centralia, shot in thigh.
Beginning of the Bloody Battle.
      For the past two weeks rumors had reached Virden daily that a train having negroes from Alabama would reach the city, and the Chicago and Alton had been surrounded day and night by vigilant miners determinedly awaiting their arrival. The Chicago and Alton limited shot through en route to Chicago an hour late, displaying flags on the rear indicating that a special was following. Immediately the word was spread and a dense crowd of miners lined the station platform, while another crowd collected at the entrance of the stockade, a half mile north of the station. D. B. Kiley, a Chicago and Alton detective, stood guard at a switch at the south end of the station platform to see that it was not tampered with. At 12:40 the special train passed the station, and signal shots were fired from the south end of the train announcing the special's arrival. Immediately shots were fired from the moving train and outside and the battle was on.
Kiley Was the First Killed.
      A few moments after the train had passed the switch where Kiley was stationed, while he was talking with two citizens, he threw up his arms and dropped dead with a bullet through his brain. He was the first man killed. The train continued to the stockade, the miners firing into it all along the route and the negro passengers returning the fire. The moment the train reached the stockade the miners opened a desperate fire with Winchesters, revolvers and firearms of all descriptions. The negroes on the train answered with a steady fire, and the carnage of battle reigned. The miners and the train were enveloped in a, cloud of smoke, and the shooting sounded like a continuous volley.
Deadly Work at the Stockade.
      Engineer Burt Tigar received a bullet in the arm and dropped from his seat. His fireman seized the throttle, pulled it open and with a jerk, the train was under speed carrying the load of negro passengers to Springfield. The train stopped at the stockade but two minutes. Its departure did not cause the firing to cease. The tower of the stockade was filled with sharpshooters armed with Winchesters, and they kept up a steady fire into the crowd of union miners. Eye witnesses say the dead miners were killed after the train had departed. It is not known how many men are stationed behind the walls of the stockade, but an estimate is placed at between twenty-five and forty.
ATTACK ON SUPT. J. F. EYSTER
Single-Handed He Fights a Mob of Infuriated Strikers.
      The supply and provision store of the Chicago-Virden Coal company is known as the Climax Trading company, with Superintendent J. F. Eyster in charge. At 2 o'clock, after the firing at the stockade had subsided, an attack without a parallel in the history of the trouble was made on Eyster in this store on Main street, one block from the station, which will probably cost him his life. He was sitting in his store when his telephone rang and he was instructed from the stockade to secure physicians and hurry them to the place. Eyster jumped into his delivery wagon and securing two doctors rushed them to the mines. He returned to his store, climbed out of his wagon, and was just entering the door when the cry was raised that Manager Fred Lukins, of the mine, was with him. With a rush a throng of infuriated miner pressed toward the store.
      Eyster ran behind a counter with a revolver in each hand. The miners pressed hard after, and as Eyster sprang upstairs he and the miners began shooting simultaneously. He ran to the top of his building and jumped behind a chimney, while the miners ran into the street and opened fire on him again. Chips flew from the brick chimney, the miners shouting: "Where have you been?" "What have you been doing at the stockade?" Eyster ran from his cover across to the roof of the Sprague drug store, firing into the street below as he ran. From there he crossed to the roof of the bank of Virden, where he reloaded his revolvers.
      Blood was flowing from a wound in his side, but with dogged determination against terrible odds he continued his fight. Jumping to the roof of the Rae & Gish drug store he halted behind a projection from the roof of the building he had just left, and emptied both his six chambered revolvers. Then springing again from cover Eyster dashed ahead amid the rain of bullets to the roof of the Steed building, the upper story of which is known as Miners' hall. He either fell or jumped through the skylight, and landed in the arms of a crowd of miners, who seized him and carried him down stairs to the street. Other hands seized the almost unconscious man and he was dragged into the middle of the street. The local policemen drove back the crowd and carried Eyster to the city square across the street and laid him in the grass. Eyster was motionless and supposedly dead.
      The police left him lying and attempted to disperse the crowd. In a few minutes Eyster was seen to raise his hand and wipe the blood from his face. Two men sprang to him and with ferocity of tigers began jumping on his body and striking him on the head with stones. With a yell the angry crowd charged into the square to kill Eyster. The police charged in a body and fought their way to the center of the mob, where they took a stand over the prostrate, battered bleeding man. A carriage was procured and Eyster was taken to the Ruckles hotel. He had been shot through the groin and is terribly battered up about the head. The physician states that he has barely a chance for recovery.
ARRIVAL OF THE MILITIA TRAIN
Unknown Man Shoots and Kills One of the Guards at the Entrance.
      The militia train bearing battery B from Galesburg, under Captain Craig, arrived at the stockade about 10:50 p. m. At Auburn, eight miles north of Virden the train was stopped and a detail of men was sent ahead on foot to inspect the track. The detail walked from Auburn to Virden. As soon as the stockade was reached the track inspection detail ordered the guards at the stockade entrance to throw up their hands. There were half a dozen guards congregated at the entrance, among them being Thomas Preston, of Chicago. The others sprang through the entrance into the enclosure, but Preston hesitated and then stepped backward slowly toward the entrance, his revolver in his hand. "Throw up your hands," came the order the second time. Preston's hands remained down. "Fire," and one rifle cracked. Preston dropped to the ground inside the gate with a bullet through his abdomen.
      Immediately the gate was slammed shut and Preston was carried to Manager Lukins' office. He was laid on a counter and expired a few moments later without having uttered a groan. Preston's death spread consternation throughout the stockade. One miner threw down his Winchester and said: "I'm disgusted with the whole thing. I've done my duty. The militia is here and I'm ready to quit." Those standing near were silent, but the lines about their mouths grew firmer and a more determined look came into their faces. Manager Lukins said: "I'm very sorry that this happened. Preston was a good man. The militia has made no effort to enter the stockade."
      Gen. J. N. Reece came from Springfield with the militia. He said that ex-Lieutenant Preston was not killed by the militia. He said that when the guard at the stockade had dodged into the entrance at the militia order of "Hands up" a revolver shot was fired from, the darkness, and Preston fell mortally, wounded. General Reece said the militia did rot fire a shot, and Preston was killed with a revolver by some one unknown.
      The inspection detail continued on ahead of the train, which moved slowly down to the station. Two hundred miners stood in the street and at the end of the platform, silently but anxiously wondering what the soldiers expected to do. The train was quickly unloaded and the men divided into squads. One squad immediately confronted the assembled miners with the order: "Hands up." Every hand was raised and every miner was searched. Squads were sent out over the city and every man was stopped and searched. Even Mayor Noll was stopped and thoroughly investigated by the soldiers.
CASUALTIES IN THE STOCKADE.
One Man Killed and Eight Wounded -- Lukins Accuses the Governor.
      An Associated Press representative secured admittance to the stockade late last night. The list of dead and wounded inside the stockade is as follows: Dead -- A. W. Morgan. Chicago.
Wounded -- H. Gritgesell, wounded in shoulder; O. J. Snyder, shot in face and legs; James Sickles, Chicago, shot in leg; Frank: Wilder, Chicago, shot in arm; Thomas McEntee. Chicago, shot in leg; J. W. Moonan. St. Louis, slightly injured; P. J. Hanna, slightly injured; J. H. Smith, Chicago, slightly injured.
      Manager Lukins remained at his desk in his office all last night issuing orders to his men for the preservation of the property. The moment the militia train appeared the guards pointed their guns through the loopholes ready to fire on the train. Manager Lukins was notified of the approach of the train and running to his office door he shouted: "Men, for God's sake don't fire on that train; it's the militia train."
      Manager Lukins said last night: "The blood of every man shed here is on the governor's head. He is absolutely outside of the law, and has no justification whatever in refusing to send troops. If this train had come in before the interview with the governor was printed there would have been no bloodshed, as the men knew they were disobeying the law and had exhibited an entirely different spirit than what they did after the interview was published. Most of them were ignorant enough to believe that they had a right to do as the governor said they had.
      "His statement that the miners had the same right to fight for his property, which was his labor, as the mine owner did to protect his property inspired these men to the action which they took today on firing upon this train as soon as it came into our town. At least fifty shots were fired Into that train by the time it reached the shaft, and no shots were fired from the train until at least 150 shots were fired into it, I think, killing and wounding a good many of the people on the train. No shots were fired from the stockade until after several of the men came back without having fired their guns at all. Most of the shooting was done by the guards on the train, who were authorized by the railroad company."
      Lukins stated that his men had instructions to withhold their fire until fired upon.
THOSE SHOT ON THE TRAIN
Number Eight, Two of Them Fatally -- Labor Leader Thown from the Cars.
      Springfield, Ills., Oct. 13. -- The special train on the Chicago and Alton which brought the Alabama negroes from Virden had eight wounded men. Of these one man died last night. William W. Carroll, a deputy sheriff. It is not known whether Caroll lived in Chicago or St. Louis. The wounded men are William H. Clarkson, an inmate of the old soldiers' home at Leavenworth Kan., deputy, skull crushed, will die: H. A. Kyger, of Bloomington, engineer on train, shot through arm; William Masser, of St. Louis, deputy, shot through head, shoulder and hands, will probably recover; James Palmer, deputy, shot in the left side of face, arm and side, will recover; Patrick Mack, of Virden, employed by the Chicago-Virden company, bullet through his thigh, will recover; Ernest Ryan, colored miner from Alabama, bullet through his head, will recover.
      John M. Hunter, of Pontiac. the president of the Illinois district of the United Mine Workers of America, lies at the Collins House in a critical condition. Hunter got on the train which bore the colored miners to this city and engaged in conversation with two of the colored miners. Some of the deputy sheriffs saw Hunter, and when the train was between North Grand avenue and the north shaft and was going at the rate of eighteen miles an hour. It is estimated, attacked Hunter and pushed him off the train. A man who happened along later in a buggy saw Hunter lying near the track in an unconscious condition and placed him in his buggy and took him to the Collins House, where a physician dressed his wounds. He is terribly cut about the face and his ribs are injured.
Last Telegram to Gov. Tanner.
      Virden. Ills., Oct. 13. -- Sheriff Davenport wired the following message to Governor Tanner yesterday morning just prior to the riot:
      "One thousand armed men, mostly from points outside of Macoupin, are unlawfully assembling in this city, and bloodshed and loss of life of our citizens is liable to occur at any hour. I do not consider that my own life is safe, as the situation is absolutely beyond my control. This is my last appeal to you for aid. If you cannot place troops here immediately I must be absolved from all responsibility for results."
      In reply to this message the governor wired: "As long as the coal company persists in importing labor I will not furnish troops, unless rioting occurs."
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The Champaign Daily News, Champaign, Illinois
Volume 4, Number 67
Saturday, October 15, 1898, Page 1
ARE CHARGED WITH MURDER
Warrants Sworn Out for Supt. Lukens and His Men.
HAVE NOT BEEN ARRESTED
Col. Young, with 400 Soldiers, Guarding the Stockade at Virden, Ill.
-- Gov. Tanner Firm In the Position He Has Taken
      Virden, Ill., Oct. 15. -- A charge of conspiracy to murder and murder has been brought against the officials of the Chicago-Virden Coal company and the guards employed by them. This is the first move on the part of the strikers to take the fight against the mine owners into the courts.
      The complaint was filed by Virgil Bishop, a Virden miner. The names mentioned in the complaint are: Fred W. Lukens, superintendent of the mine; T. J. Loucks, president of the company;----- York, vice president of the company; H. Gutgesell, Thomas McEntee, O. G. Snyder, James Sickles. Frank Wilder. John W. Moonan, C. J. Harran and J. H. Smith.
      The warrant was sworn out before Police Magistrate O. J. Roberts, who is also foreman of the coroner's jury, now conducting the inquest. William Riny, the town marshal, did not serve the warrants. A consultation between Col. Young, Capt. Craig and the city authorities was held, and a strong hint given to the town marshal that he would not be allowed to jeopardize the peace of the community by arresting Superintendent Lukens and his men in the stockade.
      There seems to he a willingness on the part of both parties to let matters cool down somewhat, and unless the persistent rumors that the coal company intends to get the colored employes into the stockade prove true, no further bloodshed is expected. A strict guard has been established around and within the stockade.
      Superintendent Lukens and his guards are all virtually prisoners of Col. Young and his troops.
      Superintendent Lukens would say little about the warrant sworn out against him.
      "They were the aggressors," he said, and attacked us. For weeks they had been threatening our property and lives and we did nothing but defend ourselves. We acted strictly within the law and do not feel any apprehension about the outcome.
      It is being generally discussed among the miners chat, in addition to the the criminal prosecution, civil suits will be filed against the mining company. Their attorney said that in arming their guards and trying to force colored miners into the places of the strikers, the company officials created a condition of affairs that made it almost certain there would be loss of life. On this basis, he claims, damage suits will be brought by the families of the dead miners and by those who were wounded.
WILL KEEP NEGROES OUT.
Gov. Tanner Increases the Guard and Gives Explicit Instructions.
      Pana, Ill., Oct. 15. -- Company G. Illinois national guard, of Aurora, which has been on guard here since the miners and the imported Alabama negroes participated in a pitched battle in the business streets two weeks ago, has been re-enforced by cavalry troop B of Bloomington and company F of Macomb, 200 men in all. They are equipped with a Gatling gun, sidearms and Springfield rifles, and are in charge of Maj. W. P. Butler. The troop and Infantry company went into camp at Hayward's opera house, where they will remain until Gov. Tanner orders them home.
      Maj. Butler's orders are to guard all entrances to the city and at every mine and prevent the landing of any negroes or imported labor from other states; to preserve peace and protect life and property of bona fide citizens and disarm every person having arms. Perfect order prevails.
Gov. Tanner Makes New Law.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 15. -- Gov. Tanner, in an interview explaining his stand regarding the mining troubles, declared positively he will not permit the importing of laborers from other states, even though there is no law which will support him in such a course.
      The executive says statutory enactment between the states protecting each from the others is necessary, but lacking legal authority he will take the action necessary. The coal company at Virden is called an outlaw by Mr. Tanner, who says he will oppose, with the national guard if necessary, the bringing in of armed bodies of men for any purpose.
Strangers Buy Ammunition.
      Tower Hill, Ill., Oct. 15. -- Four men, supposed to be miners from Pana, arrived here Friday and purchased all the cartridges, powder, shot and loaded shells they could from the merchants. They then left town quickly, going in the direction of Pana.
Stops Searching Trains.
      Virden, Ill., Oct. 15. -- Col. Young has modified the attitude of the troops toward the Chicago and Alton road, and none of the trains were stopped or searched Friday. They were all closely watched, however. Orders were received from Springfield that no more of the trains should be stopped, as assurance had been given that the railroad company would not assist the coal company in attempting to bring in the colored miners.
Pana Ready for Strife.
      Pana, Ill., Oct. 15. -- All is quiet here in mining circles. The negroes who failed to land at Virden may be brought to Pana. If they are trouble will follow. The militia and miners here are being posted hourly on every move made at Virden.
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 306
Saturday, October 15, 1898, Page 1
ALL QUIET AT VIRDEN
Except That a Bird Cannot Chirp Without Starting a Flock of Rumors.
EVERY TRAIN A NEW SENSATION,
Until It Has Passed and Nothing Happened by Its Coming.
Soldiers Guard the Railway Line
-- Testimony of the Deputies Given to the Coroner
-- Warrants Issued for Lnkins Arrest on a Criminal Charge, but Not Served
-- Six Woundrd Guards Sent to St. Louis
-- Negroes Who Were at Springfield Sent to the same City.
      Virden, Ill. Oct. 15. -- A new quiver of excitement swept over this town hourly throughout the afternoon and from 2 o'clock till nightfall rumor followed rumor and not even the best-informed had any definite idea as to what would develop during the night. The first rumor started was that another train load of negroes would be taken through here from Springfield during the afternoon. The station platform and the half mile of railroad between the station and stockade was cleared of citizens and thereafter kept cleared by the soldiers. At 4 p. m. a special train pulled in from the south and the usual excitement ensued. The train came on to the station, received orders and backed north and to the stockade, where the six wounded men from within were taken aboard, and the train proceeded southward. Word was received at 5:20 p. m. by Colonel Young stating that a train load of negroes, heavily guarded. had left Springfield en route south.
Evidence Before the Coroner.
      The afternoon session of the coroner's jury lasted several hours, taking the testimony of the wounded guards, eleven in number. The statements of the wounded men who were on the train with the negroes developed nothing different from what was stated by other witnesses yesterday before the jury, the majority claiming that the firing was commenced by the strikers. In some of the statements it was acknowledged that when the guards on the train learned that the miners were firing on them they returned the fire. They claimed that they had strict orders from Captain Schunacker under no circumstances to fire a shot except in defense of their lives.
Capt. Schunacker's Instructions.
      Captain Schunacker said to the men before reaching Virden that the probabilities were that there would be a number of shots fired by the strikers in the air to frighten the negroes, but under no circumstances to return the fire unless they knew positively that the shots were being directed at the train. The men who testified that there were any shots fired by the guards on the train said that not a man fired a shot until they saw their comrades dropping on all sides of them. One of the witnesses when being cross-examined by the miners' attorney as to where he had used his rifle declined to answer the question. The attorney told him that was his privilege, and then presented the question to him in another form by asking, "If you did shoot could you state how often?" The witness still declined to answer the question. None of them would acknowledge that they themselves individually fired.
AFTER LOUCKS AND LUKINS.
Warrants Issued for the Arrest of the Mine Onwer and Manager.
      In regard to the service of the warrant against President Loucks, General Manager Lukins and others on a charge of "conspiracy to murder and murder," issued yesterday. Colonel Turner said to the Associated Press: "When the matter was brought to my notice I suggested that the arrest be deferred for the present, and the police readily agreed to be governed by my wishes. While I realise that I may have no legal right to prevent the service of warrants upon the men at the stockade, I believe that there are times when common sense should be exercised and that this is one of them. The town is perfectly quiet today and the chances are that should the warrants be served and the men be brought to town for preliminary hearing there would develop more or less excitement which I desire to avoid."
      In the stockade Thursday were six from St. Louis, who came up on the train carrying the blacks Wednesday, and who were more or less seriously wounded during the fight that day. The doctor in attendance recommended, their removal to a St. Louis hospital, where those In the most critical condition could receive much needed attention. Captain Craig, then in command of the troops, consented to their removal, but the men declined to risk the trip without a military escort which could sot be furnished. Yesterday the outlook was so much more pacified about town that they consented to depart. The report that a blanket warrant had been issued that might envelop them, may have had some effect in influencing them.
      When they departed every precaution was taken to protect the train. The track was patrolled by soldiers all the way from the station and squads of infantry were stationed to guard every approach. Even with this precaution three strangers, evidently scouts of the miners, were present inside the picket lines and were not discovered until the train had departed.
STATEMENTS ABOUT THE TROUBLE
From the State Arbitration Board, Gov. Tanner and Manager Lukins.
      Springfield. Ills.. Oct. 13. -- H. R. Calef, chairman of the state board of arbitration, last night made a statement to the Associated Press relative to the mining trouble at Virden. He said that there had been no strike in the Chicago and Alton sub-district, of which the Virden mines are a part; the mines at Virden had simply been shut down on April 1 by the operators because, they claimed, they could not pay the Springfield scale. In July the miners and operators joined in an application to the state board of arbitration and the board decided that the operators should pay the Springfield scale. The operators refused to abide by the board's decision. In August both sides submitted the matter to Prseident Ratchford and the national executive board of the Mine Workers, agreeing in writing to abide by their decision. The committee sustained the Springfield scale, and again the operators refused to abide by the decision.
      Governor Tanner last night gave out an interview to the Associated Press regarding the situation at Virden and his attitude on the importation of miners into the state. He said: "Certain yellow journals industriously tried to have my position misunderstood by stating that I was opposed to the importation, as they put it, of 'niggers.'
      My position has been from the beginning and I am now more positive in that position emphatically against the importation of labor into Illinois. not from the southern states alone but from all other states, because such a pernicious system necessarily brings to our state and dumps upon society an undesirable class of citizens, and I do not propose, if I can help it, that the state of Illinois shall be used as a dumping ground for the criminal and idle classes ot other countries or other states.
      "If one, two or three, or even a larger number, come to our state in the proper order and in the ordinary way, seeking honest employment, and the mine owners see fit to employ them I will give them all the protection necessary to peacefully operate their mines." He further said that the Chicago-Virden company had been an intentional outlaw has sent an agent to Alabama and by false pretenses induced negroes to come here, feeding them like stock, and procuring the services of armed guards from a detective agency, and invading the state in an illegal manner.
      He charges the owners of the Chicago-Virden mine with firing on the miners first, and with being law breakers and criminally responsible for the bloodshed of Wednesday, and their detectives and guards as guilty of murder and should be, and he believed will be, indicted by the Macoupin county grand jury for murder. "As I said In the beginning, it is not my purpose, nor has it been from the first, to discriminate against the negro. The negro has the same right under our laws and constitution as all other classes and nationalities. What I am opposed to is the pernicious system of importing labor. Perhaps in placing an embargo upon imported labor I am a little in advance of statutory enactment. However, sometimes in the interest of society it becomes necessary to enforce a law in advance of its statutory enactment.
      "Many good people, perhaps, think that I should have sent troops to Virden before this difficulty occurred. Had I done so I would have been using the state as an agent to further the interests of the mine owners, as the moment the troops had been landed they would have dispersed the idle miners. and of course the avaricious mine owners could have landed their imported labor without difficulty, thus accomplishing their end."
      Virden, Ills.. Oct. 15. -- General Manager Lukins stated to the Associated Press yesterday that he would like to present a statement in regard to the wages paid by his company and the demands of the strikers, as he believed it had never been clearly presented. He said: "Under the old scale of wages, prior to the summer of 1897 the pay at our Auburn mines was 25 cents per ton mine run, and under that fairly good miners could and did earn $2.25 per day of ten hours, free from all expenses. I have figured up the pay rolls and they show an average of $2.29 per day net for every miner in the mine, with a range of $1.10 to $4.56 per day.
      "The price of powder has been reduced 50 cents a keg since then, which makes a material increase in the miners' wages. At the price miners are demanding. 40 cents per ton, an average miner can make from $3 to $4 per day, and a good worknman would have no difficulty in earning $6 per day. We have had men in our Virden mine working at 55 cents per ton, screened coal, which equals about 2 cents per ton at mine run, make over $5 per day."
      However, this may be, it was stated to the state arbitration board that the annual earnings of the miners at Virden were less than $350 each.
      Negroes Arrive at St. Louis.
      St. Louis. Oct. 15. -- Fifty-seven negroes from Alabama to work in the mines at Virden. Ills., are stranded in this city. They arrived here last night over the Chicago and Alton road from Springfield. Ills., and as they have no transportation beyond St. Louis the men are unable to get out of the city.
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MAKE NO FURTHER EFFORT.
Virden Company Will Not Seek to Land Colored Miners.
      Virden, Ill., Oct. 15. -- Attorney Patten, representing the coal company at the inquest, savs no further attempt will be made to land the negroes here. He also has under consideration an attempt to fix the responsibility on Gov. Tanner.
      The coroner resumed the inquest into the cause of death of Wednesday's victims today. Only three witnesses were examined They were all guards and testified that they took no part in the battle.
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NEGROES SENT OUT OF ILLNOIS.
Started from the State Capital And Headed for St. Louis.
      Springfield. Ills., Oct. 15. -- While over 2,000 miners were lined up in the street near the Church of the Immaculate Conception ready to follow the remains of their comrade, Edward Walsh, who was killed in the riot at Virden Wednesday, to the cemetery, the negroes from Alabama were quietly srnuggled out of the city and sent to St. Louis. Chief of Police Castles had decided the best time to get the negroes out the city was while the miners were in procession waiting for the funeral of Walsh to be over. Therefore about 3 p. m. yesterday the 106 negroes were hustled out of Allen's hall and guarded by a platoon of police and company F, of Macomb, Sons of Veterans and troop F, First Illinois cavalry. Bloomington, they were hurried to the Central Union Railway station, only four blocks distant, and placed in a coach which was in waiting and then taken to the Bluff line yards, where they were put on a special train and taken to St. Louis, leaving Springfield at 3:20 o'clock.
      A subscription was taken up among the business men and the money hurriedly raised to get the negroes out of town.
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Railway Makes a Protest.
      Springfield, Ills.. Oct. 15. -- William Brown, of Jacksonville, general counsel of the Chicago and Alton railroad, called on Governor Tanner last evening and protested in the name of the railroad company against the state troops boarding the company's trains and searching them. The result of Brown's protest was that Governor Tanner gave instructions to Colonel Young, in command of the state troops at Virden, not to allow troops to board the Chicago and Alton trains and search them, but to prevent the unloading of negro miners there.
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 46, Number 307, Monday, October 17,1898, Page 1
COMPANY IS DEFIANT.
Chicago-Virden People Declare a Policy of Aggressive Resistance.
WILL TAKE THEIR CASE TO COURT
And Persist In Their Intention to Put Negro Miners Into the Mine
-- Statement of th Counsel and Manager of the Company
-- Prorrna of the Inquest
-- Lukins Gives the full Record of the Case for the Side of the Company.
      St. Louis, Oct. 17. -- Acting Manager F. C. Mills, of the Thiel Detective agency in this city, says his company is paying the board of negro miners who were not permitted to stay in Illinois. He said: "We were instructed to do that by the Virden people. The Chicago-Virden Coal company will reimburse us and, we think, the state of Illinois will have to reimburse the coal company. At least a strong effort will be made to have the state pay." Later Mill's received a telegram from the Chicago-Virden Coal company, telling him to keep the negro miners here, the coal company to pay their expenses. The teleram said that the negroes would be kept in St. Louis until protection for them at Virden could be had, and then thy would be taken there and put to work in the mines at that place.
Company Will Prosecute for Redress.
      Virden, Ills.. Oct. 17. -- "This company intends to pursue all legal means to obtain redress for the outrage it has suffered and to punish the violators of the law without respect to persons or official position." The foregoing was signed by A. V. Patton. counsel, and F. W. Lukins, manager of the Chircago-Virden Coal Company. The statement and a telegram from St. Louis giving the instructions of the company to the Thiel Detective agency, gave the policy of the coal company briefly as it is announced here. Patton said further: "Our position is that the Chicago-Virden Coal company has the legal right to employ men to work in its mine without respect to their place of residence and to take such measures as are necessary to put them to work.
Alleged Duty of the Governor.
      "When the sheriff of Macoupin county notified Governor Tanner that he was unable to preserve the peace, the governor should have sent at once a military force sufficient to have dispersed the rioters and to preserve the peace, and he had no right to refuse the aid on the ground that the employes were not citizens of this state. The assemblage of a large body of men armed with the avowed purpose of preventing the colored employes of the company from engaging in its service is a violation of the criminal code of this state. For three days no word of definite plans could be obtained from the officials."
Progrees of the Coroner's Report.
      The coroner's jury had two sessions Saturday at the stockade, where I examined several witnesses. They were all ex-guards who are under nominal arrest by the militia. The testimony was corroborative of that given by the guards Friday. The coal company has several witnesses to examine, including Manager Lukins, and it will take one or more days to conclude. One witness swore that he and twenty-five others were sworn in by Sheriff Davenport as deputies, and so far as he knew he was still serving in that capacity.
Lawyers Hare a Skirmish.
      In the cross-examination Attorney Mooney, representing the miners' union, brought out the fact that the witness had never received a written commission and had not filed a bond. Attorney Patten asked Mooney if it was necessary to take a written commission and bonds; if so, he would like to see the authority. Mooney said the statutes so provided, whereupon one of the juror's declared that he had served as deputy sheriff many times and had never given bond or received a written commission.
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FULL STATEMENT OF THE TROUBLE.
As It Looks from the Standpoint of the Company Manager.
      Manager Lukins has made a statement to the Associated Press which he begins by charging the failure of the Chicago-Virden Coal company to get its men to work at the company's price to be due to the machinations of competing coal companies, for reasons that are evident. The manager then gives a history of the company's attempt to get negroes from the south at work in Virden.He said: "We arranged for men and brought the first load here Sunday morning. Sept. 25. Owing to the large crowd of miners here and the hostile demontrations that they made it was found impossible to land them without a large loss of life, and the train was run through to Springfield, where the miners were captured by the United Mine Workers and most of them returnedto their homes.
      "Before we shipped these men in we appealed to the mayor of the city of Virden and also to the sheriff of Macoupin county for protection against the armed mob which was congregating about our property. The mayor promised at first that he would afford us protection, and if he was unable to do so he would call on the sheriff for assistance." The manager says that riotous acts continued, and he called on the mayor to carry out his promise, and was told that the strike leaders had promised that no harm should be done; that the turbulence was all a bluff. Still later more riotous acts were committed, and upon having his attention called to the fact the mayor said he had called the strike leaders' attention to the first cases and they had told him that the acts were committed by outside miners, but that they would see that it did not happen again.
      Manager Lukins said he tried to convince the mayor that he strike leaders were unworthy of confidence, but failed. He charges the mayor with weakness and vacilliatlon and that the sheriff was more so. Then the manager gives the sheriff's first telegram to the state executive as follows: "The city of Virden is in control of an armed mob of from 70 to 1,000 men, all armed, who are threatening the property of the Chicago-Virden Coal company and the lives of its employes. They have control of all the streets and surround the mine, preventing citizens from entering upon the grounds of the company. I am unable to control the situation with the force of deputies at my command, and am utterly unable to get a sufficient force to do so. In order to prevent a large loss of life and property I ask that a force of troops of sufficient size to control the mob be sent there at once.
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POSITION OF THE ACTING GOVERNOR.
Willing to Send Troops, but Preferred That Gov. Tanner Should Act.
      Manager Lukins and Sheriff Davenport saw Acting Governor Northcott and told him the situation. "He was very anxious that peace should be preserved, but did not want to act in the absence of Governor Tanner if it could be prevented. He asked the sheriff and myself to keep matters if possible in status quo so that troops would not be necessary until after Governor Tanner returned. Governor Tanner returned to Springfield Sunday morning, Oct. 9. In the meantime the situation assumed a very threatening and dangerous aspect, and the sheriff wired Governor Tanner the following on Sunday the 9th:
      " 'Please see my message of the 17th to Lieutenant Governor Northcott. The situation has not improved, and I am utterly unable to control the mob. * * * The town is full of armed men, and I am reliably informed that 1,000 more armed men will be in tonight. No one is allowed to enter the coal company's property without permission of the strikers. * * * The miners have repeatedly violated their promises to me to obey the law, and have committed numerous acts of violence. I am utterly unable to enforce the law, and I have not got nor am I able to get a force of deputies large enough to command respect. The condition of affairs is so serious that in order to preserve life and property I am compelled to ask that an ample number of troops to preserve the law be sent here at once. Please answer.' "
      The manager next tells of the telephone talk with the governor, in which the latter was informed of the situation fully, and then of a visit to Springfield on Monday Oct. 10, when Adjutant General Reece was seen by Captain D. D. Anthony and informed that it was the intention of the company to bring in men, and that troops would be needed to prevent loss of life. Reece, the manager is sure, did all in his power to have troops sent and Anthony later sent word to Lukins that he had every reason to believe troops would be sent. In short Luklns says that he had practical assurances -- not direct from the governor, however -- that troops would be sent in time to protect the negroes in the train.
      He then says that he was not assured that no troops would be at Virden in time to meet the train until it was too late to prevent it coming. He closes with the final appeal from Davenport to the governor and the Iatters reply, which were given in these dispatches last week.
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True Republican, Sycamore, Dekalb County, Illinois
October 19, 1898 Page 2
BECOME WANDERERS.
Springfield, Ill. Rids Herself of the Imported Negroes.
Loaded on a Train and Shipped to St. Louis, Where They Are Stranded
-- Gov . Tanner Explains His Attitude Fully.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 15. -- While over 2,000 miners were lined up in the street near the Church of the Immaculate Conception ready to follow the remains of their deceased companion, Edward Welsh, who was killed in the riot at Virden Wednesday, to the cemetery, the imported negroes from Alabama were quietly smuggled out of the city and sent to St. Louis. Chief of Police Castles had decided the best time to get the negroes out of the city was while the miners were in procession waiting for the funeral of Welsh to be over. Therefore, about three o'clock Friday afternoon the 106 negroes were bustled out of Allen's hall, and guarded by a platoon of police and company F, of Macomb, Sons of Veterans and troop B, First Illinois cavalry, Bloomington, they were hurried to the Central Union railway station, only four blocks distant, and placed in a coach which was in waiting and then taken to the Bluff line yards, where they were put on a special train and taken to St. Louis, leaving Springfield at 3:20 o'clock. A subscription was taken up among the business men and the money hurriedly raised to get the negroes out of town.
Reenforcements Sent to Pana.
      Capt. Harris, of company G, Sons of Veterans, telephoned Adjt. Gen. Reece from Pana that it was believed the negroes who were prevented from landing at Virden Thursday evening would be brought to Pana to reenforce the negroes there. He was ordered to guard all the coal mines and railway approaches and prevent any negroes from landing and to call on citizens to assist him if necessary. As company G is the only command of military at Pana, company F, Third infantry, Macomb, and troop B, First cavalry, of Bloomington, with a Gatling gun, were sent to Pana on a special train on the Baltimore & Ohio Southwestern at 3:45 p. m. to reenforce him.
Stranded In St . Louis.
      St. Louis, Oct. 15. -- Fifty-seven negroes who came from Alabama to work in the mines at Virden, Ill., are stranded in this city. They arrived here Friday night over the Chicago & Alton road from Springfield, Ill., and as they have no transportation beyond St. Louis the men are unable to get out of the city. For the night the unfortunate men who were not allowed to stop at Virden were cared for in the emigrants waiting-room. Today they will have to vacate, and they will have no place to go. On the same train with the colored miners were six wounded guards, who were injured in the battle with the striking miners at Virden. They are St. Louis men. Station Agent Coakley said that the negroes were turned over to him by the conductor with the statement that transportation for them had been furnished only as far as St. Louis.
Warrant Ont for Lukins.
      Virden, Ill., Oct. 15. --A warrant was sworn out here by Virgil Bishop, a union miner, charging Fred W. Lukins, T. C. Loucks and Mr. Yorke and eight of the coal company's deputies with murder and being accessories before and after the fact. The warrant will not be served until after the inquest.
More Excitement at Virden.
      Virden, Ill., Oct. 15. -- A new quiver of excitement swept over this town hourly throughout the afternoon and from two o'clock till nightfall rumor followed rumor and not even the best informed had any definite idea as to what would develop during the night. The first rumor started was that another train load of negroes would be taken through here from Springfield during the afternoon. The station platform and the half mile of railroad between the station and stockade was cleared of citizens and thereafter kept cleared by the soldiers. At 4:00 o'clock a special train pulled in from the south and the usual excitement ensued. The train came on to the station, received orders and backed north and to the stockade, where the six wounded men from within were taken aboard. No interference was offered, although the miners thronged along the track back of the soldier line and the train proceeded southward. Word was received at 5:30 o'clock by Col. Young stating that a train load of negroes, heavily guarded, had left Springfield en route south. Another rumor circulated to the effect that the miners at Pana would make an effort during the night to drive the negroes from Pana. These rumors served to hold the excitement tense here and the town is patrolled in all parts near the railroad and stockade by the blue coats.
More Troops Arrive.
      The second detachment of Col. Young's cavalry, composed of 80 men, arrived Friday night. Regimental headquarters have been established at the opera house. It is connected by a direct telephone line with the stockade, and half-hour reports are received from the mine by Col. Young, who has settled down apparently for an indefinite stay. He has 500 men now under his command and considers that he is master of the situation. The only thing that can bring about trouble, he said , will be another attempt to bring the colored miners, and I have no idea this will be attempted. It would make no difference about the trouble whether we were here or not. If the troops should be removed and the mine officials landed the blacks the strikers would attack them, so it is as broad as it is long. Col. Young said he had heard nothing that would indicate that an attempt would be made to land the negroes at Pana. The town was perfectly quiet at midnight, with no one on the streets except the militia patrolling their beats.
Testimony at Stockade.
      When the coroner's jury arrived at the stockade they were accompanied by Hon. J. W. Patton, of Springfield, Ill., who is Manager Lukins attorney, and also by a representative of the legal department of the Chicago & Alton railroad, who is here looking after the interest of the railroad company. Several witnesses were examined before noon , when the jury took a recess until 1:30 p. m. The afternoon session of the coroner's jury lasted several hours, taking the testimony of the wounded guards, 11 in number. In order to accomplish this a house-to-house canvass was necessary, as many of the special officers were confined to their bunks in the companies houses. The statements of the wounded men who were on the train with the negroes developed nothing different from what was stated during the morning session of the jury, the majority claiming that the firing was commenced by the strikers. In some of the statements it was acknowledged that when the guards on the train learned that the miners were firing on them they returned the fire. They claimed they had strict orders from Capt. Schumacker under no circumstances to fire a shot except in defense of their lives. The men who testified denied that there were any shots fired by the guards on the train and said that not a man fired a shot until they saw their comrades dropping on all sides of them.
Tanner's Attitude.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 15. -- Gov. Tanner gave out a lengthy interview regarding the situation at Virden and his attitude on the importation of miners into the state. He said "Certain yellow journals industriously tried to have my position misunderstood by stating that I was opposed to the importation, as they put it, of niggers. Certain newspaper reports have charged Gen. Reece and Capt. Craig, of the battery, of speaking disrespectfully of the imported niggers, as they see fit to call them. This is absolutely untrue of Gen. Reece and Capt. Craig, as well as myself. My position has been from the beginning, and I am now more positive in that position, emphatically against the importation of labor into Illinois, not from the southern states alone, but from all other states, because such a pernicious system, as I have said before, necessarily brings to our state and dumps upon society an undesirable class of citizens, and I do not propose, if I can help it, that the state of Illinois shall be used as a dumping ground for the criminal and idle classes of other countries or other states. If one, two or three, or even larger numbers come to our state in the proper order, and in the ordinary way, seeking honest employment, and the mine owners see fit to employ them, I will give them all the protection necessary to peacefully operate their mines."
Coal Company an Outlaw.
      Gov. Tanner further said that the Chicago-Virden company has been an intentional outlaw; has sent an agent to Alabama and by false pretenses induced negroes to come here, loading them on the trains like cattle, locking the doors of the cars, feeding them like stock, and procuring the services of armed guards from a detective agency, and invading the state in an illegal manner, as no governor of another state would do without the consent of the governor whose state was to be entered. Gov. Tanner says if he had been apprised of the coming of the train he should have had it met at the state line with the national guard and disarmed and made prisoners of every man bearing arms. He charges the owners of the Chicago-Virden mine with firing on the miners first, and with being law breakers and criminally responsible for the bloodshed of Wednesday, and their detectives and guards as guilty of murder and should be, and he believes will be, indicted by the Macoupin county grand jury for murder.
Exceeded His Authority.
      Referring to the action of Capt. Craig in searching the train which bore the negro miners back to Virden Friday evening, the governor said that Capt. Craig had exceeded his authority , and that he had instructed Col. Young, now commanding at Virden, not to interfere with the operation of the trains nor to invade them, but to only prevent the unloading of imported laborers, which unloading would at once bring about trouble. The governor continued: "As I said in the beginning, it is not my purpose, nor has it been from the first, to discriminate against the negro. The negro has the same right under our laws and constitution as all other classes and nationalities. What I am opposed to is the pernicious system of importing labor. Perhaps in placing an embargo upon imported labor I am a little in advance of statutory enactment. However, sometimes in the interest of society, it becomes necessary to enforce a law in advance of its statutory enactment. Many good people, perhaps, think that I should have sent troops to Virden before this difficulty occurred. Had I done so I would have been using the state as an agent to further the interests of the mine owners, as the moment the troops had been landed they would have dispersed the idle miners, and of course the avaricious mine owners could have landed their imported labor without difficulty, thus accomplishing their end.
Troops Must Not Board Trains.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 1. -- William Brown, of Jacksonville, general counsel of the Chicago & Alton railroad, called on Gov. Tanner Friday evening and protested in the name of the railroad company against the state troops boarding the company's trains and searching them. The result of Mr. Brown's protest was that Gov. Tanner gave instructions to Col. Young, in command of the state troops at Virden, not to allow troops to board the Chicago & Alton trams and search them, but to prevent the unloading of negro miners there .
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
47, Number 2
Wednesday, October 19, 1898, Page 1
WILL TRY TO ENJOIN TANNER
Seems To Be the Next Move Contemplated by Virden Coal Operators.
      Springfield, Ills., Oct. 19. -- Certificates of the election and inauguration of Governor Tanner were obtained of the secretary of state yesterday by a representative of the Chicago-Virden Coal company, and it is supposed they will be used in injunction proceedings against Governor Tanner for his interference with the unloading of negro miners at Virden.
      Virden, Ills., Oct., 19. -- At the coroners inquest yesterday Superintendent Lukins finished his evidence, eliciting no new features from the trend of testimony given by the guards on the three previous days of the inquest. Sheriff Davenport was a witness in the afternoon, and in part corroborated the guards' testimony as to their having been appointed as deputy sheriffs, only claiming that prior to last Wednesday he had discharged all those whom he had deputized within the stockade.
      Battery B, of Galesburg, and troop C, of Chicago, left for their homes yesterday. It is expected that all troops will be withdrawn by Oct. 28. All the guards have been released on bond, the company having gone their security, and all have left the city. Superintendent Lukins and the six negroes who succeeded in entering last Wednesday are all that remain, being heavily guarded by troops.
      Pana, Ills., Oct. 19. -- The local mine situation remains practically unchanged. Very little coal is being hoisted at the four mines, the negroes refusing to work only as they see fit. The report comes from Virden that the operators there want to arbitrate. Seven of the Pana miners who went to Arkansas to work in the mines have returned. They tell many tales of hardship, and say the other Pana miners who went there will son return. Isaiah Ross, the negro who was shot by John Hawkins Sunday afternoon, is still alive and hopes are now entertained for his recovery. The fire in the Pana Coal company's mine is still raging and the mine cannot be operated for weeks.
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True Republican, Sycamore, Dekalb County, Illinois
October 22, 1898, Page 2
RECALLS ALL STATE RIFLES
Governor Will Not Permit Sheriff of Christian County to Keep the Firearms Longer.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 18. -- On account of the shooting affray at Pana Sunday night, in which one negro shot another with a state rifle. Gov. Tanner Monday morning issued an order recalling all state rifles in the possession of Sheriff Coburn of Christian county.
      Springfield, Ill., Oct. 18. -- The coroner's inquest into the killing of the miners and guards in the riot at Virden last Wednesday was resumed Monday morning, and Manager Fred W . Lukens, of the Chicago-Virden Coal company, was examined Mr . Lukens' testimony failed to develop anything that has not already been brought forth. He positively declared that from the position he occupied on the inside of the stockade he had seen the miners fire the first shots at the train, and that the train guards did not return the fire until the train had nearly reached the stockade. He went into detail and told of the differences in the scale and other matters that led up to the riot. He denied emphatically that any shots were fired from the tower, from which it had been claimed that so much death-dealing lead was poured into the strikers on the outside. His testimony will be resumed this morning. Battery B and troop C , both ordered away from Virden to go to Chicago to take part in the peace jubilee, have orders to return to Virden, but it is thought that this order will be countermanded.
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True Republican, Sycamore, Dekalb County, Illinois
October 22, 1898, Page 2
THE PANA STRUCK.
Some Comments by the State Press on the Situation.
      Springfield State Journal : There has not been and Is not now any occasion for sending troops to Pana . The best citizens of Pana, the merchants and largest property owners, say that troops are not needed there. The people of Pana and of the state of Illinois are to be congratulated that Governor Tanner so readily discerned the situation there did not warrant the fears entertained nor justify the sending of troops.
      Danville Press (Dem.): Arbitration is a good thing for a coal operator, such as a Pana anarchist. He can avail himself of it and if it is not to his liking he need not accept it, and then can call upon the law to protect him in all his efforts to get the advantage of the miners. O, how despicable, irresponsible, turbulent and anarchistic in tendency would the Pana miner be Just now, if he was doing what the operator is engaged at.
      Peoria Star: When the mine owners in Pana found that they could not get the state to fight their battle for them they gracefully came down out of the tree. The fact is that they had no case, as the lawyers say, and public sentiment has been against them from the very outset, as was proper.
      Peoria Herald (Dem.): It is beginning to look as though those mining troubles might be settled without the use of troops. When the mine owners cannot call on the state to help them run in foreign miners in place of Illinois workingmen, the thing is half over.
      Canton Register: Governor Tanner did a good thing Thursday night when he in very emphatic terms informed the mine operators at Pana that he would not as long as he was governor furnish troops to protect imported laborers. He was called upon for military force for that purpose, but refused to honor the call.
      Warsaw Bulletin: The coal mine operators down at Pana do not seem to be making much headway in their fight with the miners union. The negroes whom they brought from the south under misrepresentation would not work when they learned the actual situation. The operators have been obstinate and unfair.
      Centralia Sentinel: Governor Tanner is never slow about going on record, no matter what the question is that comes up, and in the Pana case he has decided flat-footed and once for all that the money of the taxpayers shall not be used to furnish protection to imported labor brought into the state to crush home labor.
      Pana Palladium (Dem.): It is authentically stated that Deputy Sheriff Coburn was out in Rosemond township last Sunday deputizing people from that township to come to Pana on horseback and act as deputies. Such guarding is no more needed in Pana than it is needed at the silent city of the dead in Linwood. It is pure, unadulterated stubbornness and a determination on the part of the operators to have Governor Tanner send state troops. We have said and still maintain that there is no danger whatever of a citizen or a single piece of property being injured. And so far as we are concerned, if Governor Tanner will do no more than what he says he will do -- "protect citizens and property, and will not protect a lot of imported Alabama negroes at either of the coal mines, that may be brought here to take the places of home white labor, then we will be one to petition Governor Tanner to bring his militia into the city at once. That, however, will never satisfy the stubborn operators.
      Mark these words: In the first place there will not be a solitary citizen injured if anything should occur at Springside mine, if the citizen will stay at his place of business. And in the second place, if there is a piece of property in the confines of the corporate limits of Pana injured, it will be by sympathizers of operators, who will then swear it was coal miners. The Pana coal miners will see to it, and they swear positively that they will kill any person they catch trying to injure property in the city of Pana, coal mining property included.
      Governor Tanner, these are positively the kind of coal miners that we have in Pana. The miners are not to blame. Had these operators gone before your board of arbitration and then and there proven that they could not pay 33 cents, the price would have been put down to a sum that they could pay, and the mines would have been in operation long ago.
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
47, Number 10
October 28, 1898, Page 4
TANNER'S LATEST STATEMENT.
Declares He Will Use Gatling Guns on Imported Laborers.
      Chicago, Oct. 28. -- A special to The Times-Herald from Madison. Ills., says: "I reiterate that I will not tolerate this wholesale importation of foreigners into Illinois. And if I hear that a mob is to be brought into this state such as was taken into Virden. I care not on what railroad it comes, nor for whom. I will meet it at the state line and shoot it to pieces with Gatling guns."
      So declared Governor Tanner in a speech delivered before 1,200 auditors gathered at the Knights of Pythias hall in this city. It was the concluding statement in an address largely devoted to the defense of his course in the recent mine riots at Virden. He added: "When the United States government found it necessary and deemed it just to forbid the importation of foreign labor into this country, I felt that I was fully justified in the course I took at Virden."
FOUND NOBODY RESPONSIBLE
Regulation Verdict In Regard to the Murder in the Virden Riot.
      Springfield, Oct. 28. -- A State Register special from Carlinville says: The coroner's jury which has been in session for fourteen days holding an inquest on the bodies of nine of the victims of the riot at Virden, Oct. 12, between the miners and guards of the Chicago-Virden Coal company, rendered a verdict last evening.
      The verdict in each instance was that the deceased came to his death by gun shot wounds inflicted by weapons in the hands of parties unknown to the jury. No one was censured, and no recommendations were made to the grand jury. The grand jury will convene Nov. 9 in special session to investigate the causes of the riot.
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November
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Farmers' Review, Chicago, Illinois
November 2, 1898, Page 2
Illinois Mining Troubles.
      The opinion prevails that the Virden troubles will soon be settled by some compromise between the mine owners and the miners. If not, the operators interested threaten to petition the courts for an injunction to prevent Governor Tanner from interfering with the importation of laborers from other states. The operators say they believe that If they succeed in getting an injunction Governor Tanner would not see his way clear to oppose the power of the United States by the use of force, nor would he deem it wise even to place himself in contempt of court. However, if the executive still should be of his present determination the operators declare the government would be authorized to employ the protection of deputy marshals, and were state troops interposed to keep out the imported toilers the regular army could be brought into play as an unyielding escort to the mines. W. S. Foreman of Springfield recently expressed his opinion of the strike. He said "I am a member of the state board of arbitration, and this board had a hearing at both Virden and Pana, the two points in our state where the troubles exist. The price of mining coal in the state of Illinois for ten or fifteen years has been gradually decreased from an average per ton in 1883 of 80 cents down to 50 cents in 1897. This gradual reduction of wages led to the disastrous strike of 1897. Operators and miners attempted, after repeated conferences, to agree upon a scale which would be acceptable, and in January, 1898, a place was selected in each state as a basis for a subsequent scale to be adopted for the wages of the miner. In Illinois Danville was selected and the scale fixed at 40 cents per ton, run of mine; afterwards a committee of twenty-two miners and twenty-two operators met in the city of Springfield and attempted to adjust a scale which would be mutually satisfactory. A scale was adopted to go into effect on April 1, 1898. The scale agreed upon by this joint committee was so acceptable that only fifteen or twenty mines, employing about 1,500 men, or 5 per cent of the men employed in this industry, were unable to run. Mr. F. W. Lukins of the Virden Coal Company was a member of this scale committee, attended its meetings, and was in honor bound to carry out in good faith the agreement arrived at. The operators at Pana and Virden should have honestly attempted to pay the scale. These operators are much to blame for refusing to stand by their agreement and seeking to bring laborers from other states, and thereby provoking a breach of the peace and rendering loss of life and bloodshed certain. In response to the inquiry, "How will the position taken by the governor be received by the operators of the state?" Mr. Foreman said:
"Ninety-five per cent of the operators are honestly trying to pay this scale, believing it to be the only solution of this question, and have no patience with the few operators who are trying to break it, and to permit them to do so would be an injustice to the operators now carrying on their business."
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True Republican, Sycamore, Dekalb County, Illinois
Wednesday, November 23, 1898, Page 6
MORE TROUBLE AT PANA
Whites and Negroes Engage In Several Battles
-- Deputy Watts Loses an Arm.
      Pana, Ill., Nov. 19. -- Several battles between union miners and negroes, in which special deputy sheriffs had a hand, occurred Friday evening, in which it is known several parties were wounded, and it is thought some mortally. Sheriff Coburn's chief deputy, Sid Watts, of Taylorsville, had his right arm shot off. The encounter in which Watts lost his arm occurred near McCarthy's grocery, on Cedar street , adjoining the Springside addition. Watts was the only witness to the shooting from whom anything could be learned.
      As the result of two encounters between whites and blacks Thursday at Springside Deputy Watts, with assistants, were busily engaged swearing in and placing a large force of deputy sheriffs at the Springside mine, and was in a buggy en route to the mine. When passing McCarthy's, Watts says a fusillade was fired at them, fully 25 shots being discharged before he returned the fire. After being wounded Watts drove to Springside mine and was immediately brought to the city. Upon arriving at the Hotel De Pana Watts drew a gun, and, seeing Officer Ben Smith, Jake Veling and Frank Williams, business men, on the other side of the street, exclaimed: "Let me shoot them!" Corwin Overholt, nephew of Operator D. J. Overholt, of the Springside Coal company, took the gun from Watts, thus preventing him from accomplishing his purpose. Watts was later removed to Dr. J. H. Miller's office and his arm was dismembered.
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December
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Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 47, Number 62
Friday, December 30, 1898, Page 1
SOLDIER'S ACCIDENTAL FATE
Earl Herring Meets Catastrophe at Pana
-- The Long Struggle.
      Pana, Ill,. Dec. 30. -- Earl Herring, trumpeter of Company C, of Springfield, doing riot duty here, was accidentally shot and killed this morning while on guard duty east of Pana. During the storm Herring entered an old coal shed for protection from the rain. In the darkness he stumbled and fell. His gun was discharged, the ball passing through his heart. It is nine months today since union miners left the pits which are now operated by negroes. Their struggle for a state scale and recognition of the union has been bitterly fought, but there seems little more favorable prospect for victory than it was three months ago The strikers received today $1,500 from from the state organization.
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The Republican-Atlas, Monmouth, Warren County, Illinois
December 30, 1898, Page 1
Another Bad Fight at Pana.
      Pana, Ills., Dec. 26. -- The white miners and the negroes from the south engaged in another street fight Saturday evening, in which David McGavic a white union miner, and Charles Gilbert, a non-union negro, were badly inured. McGavic was struck with a beer bottle, badly mutilating his face. Gilbert was stabbed in the breast and also received three bad scalp wounds. His injuries are serious, if not fatal.
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Bureau County Tribune, Princeton, Bureau County, Illinois
Friday, December 30, 1898, Page 9
More Negroes Arrive at Pana.
      Pana, Ill. -- Another company of twenty negroes arrived at Pana this morning. They were held up by soldiers and relieved of all arms before being permitted to proceed to the mines. There are now about 400 in Pana, and the mines operated about half the time. Union miners remain out solidly for the state scale. They received $1,600 today from the national union to aid them in their fight. A company of state militia remains here and Colonel Wells has a provost guard in every section of the city. The union miners are remaining ominously quiet. Their leaders claim their chances for winning the strike grow brighter each day. A warrant has been sworn out for the arrest of a non-union miner by the name of Neal, charged with the attempted assassination of Daniel Rashaw.
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The Rock Island Argus, Rock Island, Illinois
Volume 47, Number 63
Saturday, December 31, 1898, Page 1
MINERS MARCH ON PANA.
According to a Report There
-- Soldiers Prepare for a Riot.
      Pana, Ills., Dec. 31. -- Owing to a report received by Col. Wells that 1,000 miners from Litchfield, Staunton, Mount Olive, Coffeen, Virden, Taylorville, Springfield and other southern and central Illinois mining towns, heavily armed, were en route to Pana to join the miners and assist in driving out the negroes, the Gatling section was put in readiness for quick service, and an unusually heavy provost guard in charge of the city. Colonel Wells says he anticipates trouble.
      Upon the request of Lieutenant Colonel Wells Adjutant General Reece ordered company H, of Decatur, to report at Pana immediately. They arrived sixty strong yesterday, and make u much-needed reinforcement of the company already here. On warrants taken out by State Mine Inspector Rutledge, of Alton, John Cowick, night engineer at Penwell's mine, and Moses Watts, engineer at the Pana mine, were arrested yesterday, charged with violating the state law in running mine hoisting engines without being granted state certificates.

 
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